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AUGUST 1976 



A MONTHLY CHARTBOOK OF 
SOCIAL& ECONOMIC TRENDS 



PEOPLE 



ST76-2 



OTHER 
TRENDS 




Compiled by the Federal Statistical System 



message 
from the 
president 



This second edition of 
STATUS magazine continues 
to fulfill the promise of 
the first issue. It allows the 
American people to make 
sense— and good use— of 
the flood of statistics which 
the Federal Government 
generates. 

STATUS contains essen- 
tially the same computer- 
drawn charts which have been 
prepared regularly for my 
information over the past 
year. It seemed to me that 
other Americans could benefit 
from these presentations 
and deserved access to them. 
Thus, the idea of STATUS 
magazine was born. 

Prior to STATUS, statistics 
generated by over 150 
Government agencies and some 
20,000 Federal employees 
were so overwhelming in 
total that they were useful 
only on a piecemeal basis. 



STATUS magazine pulls to- 
gether, in one place, the 
facts of American life, 
interrelates them intelli- 
gently, and presents them 
simply and graphically so 
that the reader can see 
where the Nation is headed. 

STATUS provides an 
essential raw material of 
intelligent decisionmaking. 
It offers a perspective 
that can improve our 
personal plans as 
well as our 
Nation's 
future. 



jZ»*{e.?~( 





A MONTHLY CHARTBOOK OF 
SOCIAL& ECONOMIC TRENDS 



AUGUST 1976 

ST 76-2 



Section I 

PEOPLE 

Selected Current Vital 
Statistics 4 

Population: Components 
of Change 5 

School Enrollment 6-8 

Educational Attainment 9 

Language Usage in the 
United States 10-11 

Personal Income 12 

Average Workweek 
& Real Earnings 13 

Employment & 
Unemployment 14-17 

Duration of Unemployment 
& Help-Wanted Index 17 

Public Employment 18 



Special Feature 

HEALTH 

National Health 
Expenditures 20-21 

Personal Health Care 
Expenditures 22-23 

Medical Care Prices 24 

Health Status 25 

Nonfederal Hospital Beds 
by State 26 

Hospital Discharges 27 



Physician Visits 28 
Dentist Visits 29 
Nursing Homes 30-31 
Death Rates 32 
Infant Mortality 33 
Life Expectancy 34 



Map of the Month 

Coverage 
of Male 
Cardiovascular 
Disease Mortality 

and 

Percent With 
1.01 or More 
Persons Per 
Room: 
1968-71 

42-45 



Section II 

COMMUNITY 

Housing 
Quality 36-38 

Neighborhood 
Quality 3941 

Crime Index Trends 46-47 

Inmates of State 
Correctional Facilities 48-49 



Transportation Trends 50-51 
Public School Systems 52 



Section III 

ECONOMY 

Gross National 
Product 54-55 

Industrial Production 56 

Manufacturing & Trade- 
Sales & Inventories 57 

Advance Report on 
Manufacturers' Durable 
Goods 58 

Advance Retail Sales 59 

Housing Starts & 
Permits 60 

New Home Sales 61 

Value of New 
Construction 62 

Exports & Imports 63 

Consumer Price Index- 
International Comparisons 64 

Consumer Price Index 65 

Wholesale Price Index 66 

Agricultural Prices 67 

Capacity Utilization 
in Manufacturing 68 

New Plant & Equipment 
Expenditures 69 



Consumer Installment 
Credit 70 

Public & Private 
Debt 71 

Interest Rates 72 



Section IV 

OTHER TRENDS 

Science & Engineering 
Personnel 74-75 

U.S. Passports Issued 76 

Adult Use of 
Tobacco 77-79 

Production & Imports: 
Steel, Coal, Crude Oil 80 

NOTES AND 
DEFINITIONS 81 83 



SOURCES 84-85 



Compiled by the Federal Statistical System 



U.S. Department 
of Commerce 

Elliot L. Richardson, Secretary 

BUREAU OF THE CENSUS 
Vincent P. Barabba, Director 
Robert L. Hagan, Deputy Director 
Shirley Kallek, Associate Director 

for Economic Fields 
Daniel B. Levine, Associate Director 

for Demographic Fields 



Executive Office of the President, 
Office of Management and Budget 

James T. Lynn, Director 
Paul H. O'Neill, Deputy Director 
Fernando Oaxaca, Associate Director 
for Management and Operations 
Joseph W. Duncan, Chief Statistician 
C. Louis Kincannon, Project Coordinator 



ECONOMIC SURVEYS DIVISION 
Roger H. Bugenhagen, Chief 



ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 



This publication is prepared in the 
Economic Surveys Division, Bureau 
of the Census, under the general 
direction of Roger Bugenhagen, 
assisted by Peter Ohs, Assistant 
Division Chief. John Deshaies, 
Chief, Chartbook Branch, 
assisted by Laurie Griffin and 
James C. Richardson, is directly 
responsible for the technical 
review and supervision of the 
report; Lorraine Tischler, 
Patricia Russell, Eleanor 
Clark, Dennis Gosier, and 
Queen Ware served as the major 
analysts in the preparation of 
graphic materials. Raymond L. 
Bancroft of the Public Informa- 
tion Office provided valuable 
editorial assistance. Publica- 
tion design services were pro- 
vided by Nicholas Preftakes, 
Publications Services Division, 
with editing by C. Maureen Padgett, 
also of Publications Services 
Division. Graphics systems 
were developed under the direc- 
tion of Claggett Jones, Chief 
of the Systems Software 
Division, with the assistance 



of Lawrence Cornish. 

All cartographic displays 
appearing in STATUS were pre- 
pared by Geography Division 
under the general direction 
of Jacob Silver, Division 
Chief, with technical 
direction by Frederick R. 
Broome, assisted by Roy F. 
Borgstede. 

This publication is pre- 
pared under the general 
guidance of an editorial 
committee established by 
the Office of Management 
and Budget. The committee 
consists of the following 
persons: Joseph W. Duncan, Chair- 
man, and C. Louis Kincannon, 
Executive Secretary of the Office 
of Management and Budget; 
Richard Small, Department of 
Agriculture; Morris R. Goldman, 
Bureau of Economic Analysis, and 
Shirley Kallek, Bureau of the 
Census, Department of Commerce; 
Albert H. Linden, Jr., Federal 
Energy Administration; John L. 
Stone, Federal Reserve Board; 
Marie D. Elderidge, National Center 



for Education Statistics; Jacob J. 
Feldman, National Center for 
Health Statistics; Thomas Staples, 
Social Security Administration, and 
Gooloo Wunderlich, Office of the 
Assistant Secretary for Health, 
Department of Health, Education, 
and Welfare; Robert E. Johnson, Jr., 
Department of the Interior; Harry 
Bratt, Department of Justice; 
Janet Norwood, Department of 
Labor; and William Smith, Internal 
Revenue Service, Department of 
Treasury. 

The planning and development of 
content for this publication were 
carried out with the assistance of a 
technical committee established 
by the Office of Management and 
Budget. The committee members 
are shown on the inside of the back 
cover. 

The cooperation of various govern- 
ment and private agencies which 
provide data is gratefully acknowl- 
edged. Agencies furnishing data are 
indicated on the appropriate chart 
and also listed in the Sources of 
Data. 



The Secretary of Commerce has 
determined that the publication 
of this periodical is necessary in 
the transaction of the public 
business of this Department. Use of 
funds for printing this publication 
has been approved by the Director, 
Office of Management and Budget, 
through September 1976. 

SUGGESTED 
CITATION 

United States. Bureau of the Census. 

STATUS: a monthly chartbook 
of social and economic trends. 
Washington. 

Prepared for the Office of 
Management and Budget. 

"Compiled by the Federal 
Statistical System." 

76-600037 

For sale by the Subscriber 
Services Section, Bureau of the 
Census, Washington, D.C. 20233. 
Price: $3.60 per copy. 



INTRODUCTION 

STATUS, a monthly 
chartbook which depicts 
social and economic trends, 
and important events, is an 
attempt to breathe life 
into the many numbers 
which spill daily from the 
multiple and diverse 
agencies of the Federal 
Statistical System. 

STATUS is a graphic 
presentation of current 
statistical information 
focussing on major social 
and economic conditions 
within the United States. 



There is an extensive use 
of color in presenting 
charts and maps. The 
major purpose of the 
chartbook is to digest 
complex statistical 
information, and to relay 
this information in a 
readily understandable 
form, quickly and accurately. 
The graphic techniques 
used represent the current 
"state of the art." 
However, experimentation 
with different and 
innovative techniques is 



continuous, and as new 
techniques are developed 
they will be applied. 
The goal is to constantly 
improve the understand- 
ability of timely, 
important statistical 
information. 

STATUS has been 
designed for different audi- 
ences. It is not intended for 
the exclusive use of 
professional statisticians, 
economists, or other 
social scientists. 
Although it will be 



useful for the professional, 
it is directed also at the 
general public, and 
decisionmakers and policy- 
makers in numerous fields of 
business, government, and 
academia. 

In each edition of 
STATUS, major sections 
provide current statistical 
graphic information about 
the people, the community, 
and economy, and other 
areas such as science and 
the environment. Each 

(Continued on page 86) 



Section I 



people 





Selected Current 


Percent of Persons Having 


Public Employment 




Vital Statistics 


Difficulty With English, by 
Selected "Usual" Languages: 


State, Local, and Federal 




Marriage Rate 4 


July 1975 11 


Civilian Public Employment 18 




Death Rate 4 




October Payrolls of State, 






Personal Income 


Local, and Federal Civilian 




Population: Components 


Personal Income 12 


Public Employees 18 




of Change 


Wage and Salary Disburse- 


Number of State and Local 




Population— Components of 


ments 12 


Government Employees, by 




Change: 1930-1975 5 




Type of Government: October 






Average Workweek & 


1975 18 




School Enrollment 


Real Earnings 






School Enrollment of the 


Average Workweek in Private 






Population 3 to 34 Years 


Nonagricultural Sector 13 






Old, by Level: October 1965- 








October 1 975 6 


Factory Overtime 1 3 






College Enrollment of the 


Average Weekly Earnings in 






Population 14 to 34 Years 


Current and 1967 Dollars 13 






Old, by Race and Sex: October 








1965-October 1975 7 


Employment & 






College Enrollment, by Age: 


Unemployment 






October 1 970, 1 974, 1 975 8 


Civilian Labor Force and 






Undergraduate Enrollment, by 


Employment 14 






Age and Full-Time Status: 


Unemployment Rates 14 






October 1975 8 


Unemployment Rates, by Age, 






Educational Attainment 


Sex, Race 15 






Years of School Completed 


Unemployment Rates, by 
Occupation 16 






by Persons 25 Years Old and 








Over: 1950-1975 9 


Unemployment Rates, by 
Industry 16 






Percent Change in Years of 








School Completed by Persons 
25 Years Old and Over: 


Duration of Unemployment 






1975 Over 1970 9 


& Help-Wanted Index 

Duration of Unemployment 17 






Language Usage in the U.S. 


Average (Mean) Duration 17 






Usual Language Spoken by 








Persons 4 Years Old and Over: 


Help-Wanted Advertising 1 7 






July 1975 10 








Second Language Spoken by 








Persons 4 Years Old and Over: 








July 1975 10 







4 SELECTED CURRENT VITAL STATISTICS 



Divorces Increase, 
Marriages Decrease in 
First 5 Months of 76 

For the period January to 
May 1976 a total of 733,000 
marriages were reported, 
one percent fewer than the 
total for the first 5 
months of 1975. The mar- 
riage rate for January to 
May was 8.2 per 1,000 popu- 
lation compared to 8.4 a 



year earlier. 

From January to May, there 
were 433,000 divorces. The 
divorce rate for the period 
was 5.0 per 1,000 population. 
Both the number and rate 
for the first 5 months 
of 1976 exceeded those of 
1975 by 9 percent. 



MARRIAGES PER 1,000 POPULATION 




MARRIAGE 
RATE 



Per 1,000 
Population 



May 1974 
May 1975 
May 1976 



10.8 
10.7 

10.3 



JAN. FEB. MAR. APR. MAY JUNE JULY AUG. SEPT. OCT. NOV. DEC. 



DIVORCES PER 1,000 POPULATION 



10 



8 - 



4 - 



2 - 



Divorce Rate * 



1976 



'Not Seasonally Adjusted 



1975 



1974 




DIVORCE 
RATE 



Per 1,000 
Population 



May 1974 
May 1975 
May 1976 



4.7 
4.6 
4.8 



JAN. FEB. MAR. APR. MAY JUNE JULY AUG. SEPT. OCT. NOV. DEC. 

SOURCE NATIONAL CENTER FOR HEALTH STATISTICS 



POPULATION: COMPONENTS OF CHANGE 



'75 Population Story: 
Lowest Birth, Death 
Rates in U.S. History 

The 1975 growth rate of 7.9 
per 1,000 midyear population 
was the highest in the last 
3 years. Since 1972 the 
rate of growth has remained 
below 8 per 1,000. For 
most of the period since 
World War II, the popu- 
lation grew more rapidly: 



Between 1941 and 1967, 
the rate of growth stayed 
above 10 per 1,000, while 
in 1947 and 1956, growth 
rates surpassed 18 per 
1 ,000. 

Fluctuations in population 
growth since the Second 
World War have been due 
largely to fluctuations in 
fertility because the levels 
of death and immigration 
have not varied much. 



During 1975 both the 
crude birth rate and the 
crude death rate reached 
their lowest levels in 
American history. 

Net civilian immigration 
to the United States in 1975 
was estimated at 2.1 persons 
per 1,000 population. About 
130,000 Vietnamese refugees 
are included, making the 
number of immigrants higher 
than it has been since 1969. 



Even in a year of high 
immigration such as 1975 
(50 percent more immigrants 
than in 1974), the relative 
contribution of immigration 
to population change is 
small: about one-quarter of 
the net change in popula- 
tion was attributable to 
immigration last year. 



RATE PER 1,000 MID YEAR POPULATION 




1930 



1935 



1940 



1945 



1950 



1955 



1960 



1965 



1970 



1975 



COMPONENTS OF CHANGE 



1960 



1970 



1975 



Net Growth Rate 
Crude Birth Rate 
Crude Death Rate 
Net Civilian Immigration Rate 



Rate Per 1,000 Midyear Population 



16.1 

23.8 

9.5 

1.8 



10.9 

18.2 

9.4 

2.1 



7.9 

14.7 

8.9 

2.1 



SOURCE BUREAU OF THE CENSUS 



SCHOOL ENROLLMENT 



College, Nursery School 
Enrollments Up; Grade 
School Down 6% 

The number of persons en- 
rolled at the highest and 
lowest levels of the 
education system increased 
substantially from 1965 to 
1975. 

During the 10-year 
period, large increases in 
enrollment were reported 



for nursery schools (a 
236-percent gain) and 
colleges (a gain of 71 
percent), while there were 
more moderate increases in 
high school (21 percent) 
and kindergarten (1 1 
percent). 

At the same time ele- 
mentary school enrollment 
decreased by 6 percent. 





MILLIONS OF STUDENTS (RATIO SCALE) 


















Schoc 
by Le 


I Enrollme 
vel: Octo 


r i 

nt of the P 
ser 1965 - 


1 

opulation '. 

October 1< 


~1 
I to 34 Ye. 
575 


irs Old, 




































30 - 
























2U - 
















































10 - 
9 - 




































^^-^^^^^ 












7 - 
6 - 
5 - 
4 - 






















































3 - 


















































1 - 






0.9 - 

no . 
























0.7 - 
06 - 




























0.5 - 
0.4 - 

0.3 - 

2- 
























n 1 . 

























ELEMENTARY SCHOOL 



HIGH SCHOOL 



COLLEGE 



KINDERGARTEN 



NURSERY SCHOOL 



1965 



1966 



1967 



1968 



1969 



1970 



1971 



1972 



1973 



1974 



1975 



SCHOOL ENROLLMENT 
(Persons 3-34 Years) 


1965 


1970 1975 


Elementary School 
High School 
College 
Kindergarten 
Nursery School 


32.5 

13.0 
5.7 
3.1 
0.5 


Millions of Students 

34.0 30.4 

14.7 15.7 

7.4 9.7 

3.2 3.4 

1.1 1.7 



SOURCE BUREAU OF THE CENSUS 



SCHOOL ENROLLMENT 



Black Enrollment in 
College Up 2% Times 
Between 1965 and 1975 

The rate of increase in 
college enrollment was 
greater for blacks than 
whites from 1965 to 1975. 
During that period, black 
college enrollment of 
14- to 34-year-olds in- 
creased about 2 1 /2 times 
while white enrollment 



increased by only 60 
percent. 

As a group, females 
have had a greater rate of 
increase in college en- 
rollment than males. White 
females have increased to 
44 percent of white college 
enrollment in 1975 from 
37 percent in 1965. Black 
females have remained 
about half of black college 
enrollment. 



10 
9 



MILLIONS OF STUDENTS (RATIO SCALE) 



1 1 1 1 I 

College Enrollment of the Population 14 to 34 Years Old, 
by Race and Sex: October 1965 -October 1975 




WHITE, BOTH SEXES 

WHITE, MALES 
■WHITE, FEMALES 



BLACK, BOTH SEXES 



BLACK, FEMALES 
BLACK, MALES 



1965 1966 



1967 



1968 



1969 



1970 



1971 



1972 



1973 



1974 



1975 



COLLEGE ENROLLMENT 








(Persons 14-34 Years) 


1965 


1970 


1975 






Millions of Students 




White, Both Sexes 


5.32 


6.76 


8.52 


Male 


3.33 


4.07 


4.77 


Female 


1.99 


2.69 


3.74 


Black, Both Sexes 


0.27 


0.52 


0.95 


Female 


0.15 


0.27 


0.51 


Male 


0.13 


0.25 


0.44 



SOURCE BUREAU OF THE CENSUS 



SCHOOL ENROLLMENT 



10.9 Million Persons 
Enrolled in College; 
Up One-Third Since '70 

There were about 10.9 
million persons enrolled 
in college in October 1975, 
an increase of about one- 
third since 1970. The 
largest increase in college 
enrollment during the past 
5 years occurred among 
persons 25 to 34 years old; 



although the number of 16- 
to 19-year-old college 
students increased sub- 
stantially between 1974 
and 1975. Most college 
students are still in the 
traditional age groups for 
college attendance— 16 to 
21 years old. 



Two-Thirds of All 
Undergraduates Attend 
4-Year Colleges 

Approximately two-thirds 
of undergraduate students 
under 25 years old were 
attending 4-year colleges 
in 1975, and most were 
attending full time. 



Older students, 25 to 
34 years old, were equally 
divided between 2- and 
4-year colleges, and slightly 
more than half were attend- 
ing part time. 



MILLIONS OF STUDENTS 



3.5- 



2.5 - 




1 . 5 - 



0.5 - 



"Not Available 
MILLIONS OF STUDENTS 



2 . 5 



2 -- 



1 .5 -- 



1 -- 



0.5-- 



2.2 



4-YEAR COLLEGES** 



College Enrollment by Age: 
October 1970, 1974, 1975 



16-19 


20-21 


22-24 


25-29 


30-34 


35 YEARS 


YEARS 


YEARS 


YEARS 


YEARS 


YEARS 


AND OVER 



2-YEAR COLLEGES 




PART-TIME 
FULL-TIME 



1 .0 





. 8 


. 5 










0. 4 

















Undergraduate Enrollment 
by Age and Full-Time 
Status: October 1975 



20 21 

YEARS 



2224 
YEARS 



25 34 

YEARS 



16-19 
YEARS 



20 21 
YEARS 



22-24 

YEARS 



2534 

YEARS 



' I ncludes Persons Not Reporting Type of College 



SOURCE BUREAU OF THE CENSUS 



EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT 



Adults Go to School 
Longer; 2 of 3 Finish 
High School in 1975 

Between 1950 and 1975, while 
the size of the adult popu- 
lation (25 years old and 
over) in the U.S. increased 
by a third, the number of 
adults with less than 4 
years of high school de- 
creased by approximately 
one-fifth. 



During the same period, 
the number of high school 
graduates more than doubled 
in size, from 1 7.6 million 
in 1950 to 42.4 million in 
1975. By 1975, two out of 
three adults had a high 
school diploma. 

At the college level, 
1 out of 14 adults had 
completed 4 years of college 
in 1950, compared with 
1 out of 7 in 1975. 



The greatest percent 
increase in educational 
attainment for adults from 
1970 to 1975 occurred among 
female college graduates— 
a gain of 38.6 percent. 
The increase among male 
college graduates was 
slightly lower— 32 percent. 
Between 1970 and 1975, 
there was a decrease among 
both males and females 
with less than 4 years of 



high school-12.9and8.6 
percent, respectively. 



MILLIONS OF PERSONS 



120 



100 



80 



60 



40 



20 













16 YEARS 
OR MORE 








13-15 YEARS 




















12 YEARS 
































0-11 YEARS 































Years of School Completed by Persons 
25 Years Old and Over: 1950-1975 



EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT 



0-11 Years 
12 Years 
13-15 Years 
16 Years or More 



0-11 Years 
12 Years 
13-15 Years 
16 Years or More 



1950 



1960 



Millions of Persons 
56.0 58.7 

17.6 24.4 

6.2 8.7 

5.3 7.6 



1970 



1975 



Millions of Persons 
48.9 43.7 

37.1 42.4 

11.2 14.5 
12.1 16.3 



1950 1955 1960 1965 1970 1975 



Percent Change in Years of School Completed by 
Persons 25 Years Old and Over: 1975 Over 1970 



-20 



YEARS OF SCHOOL COMPLETED 

COLLEGE, 4 OR 
MORE YEARS 



COLLEGE, 1-3 YEARS 



HIGH SCHOOL, 4 YEARS 



HIGH SCHOOL 
LESS THAN 4 YEARS 




-20 



10 

PERCENT CHANGE 



SOURCE BUREAU OF THE CENSUS 



10 LANGUAGE USAGE IN THE U.S. 



Spanish Spoken as 
Usual Language by 
4 Million in U.S. 

In July 1975, 96 percent 
of the population 4 years 
old and over in the United 
States reported English as 
their usual language. 

About 3.3 percent, or 
6.5 million persons, re- 
ported they usually speak a 
language other than English. 



Spanish was the usual 
language of 4 million 
persons— 2 percent of 
the population. No other 
language was reported by 
as much as 1 percent of 
the population. 



10% of U.S. Population 
Speak Second Language; 
English, Spanish Lead 

Approximately 90 percent 
of the population reported 
that they did not speak a 
second language. 

However, among those 
who did use a second lan- 
guage, Spanish-2.2 percent 
(4.3 million persons)— was 
close behind English— 2.5 



percent (4.9 million 
persons). 

Other languages reported 
as the second language of 
a million or more persons 
4 years old or over in- 
cluded French, German, and 
Italian. 



Usual Language Spoken by 
Persons 4 Years Old and 
Over: July 1975 




NOT REPORTED 
0.8% 



ENGLISH 
95.9% 



Second Language Spoken by 
Persons 4 Years Old and 
Over: July 1975 




NOT REPORTED 
1.0% 

NO SECOND 
LANGUAGE 
90.4% 



SOURCE BUREAU OF THE CENSUS 



LANGUAGE USAGE IN THE U.S. 



11 



English Difficult 
for 61% of Persons 
Using Other Languages 

Among persons whose usual 
language was not English, 
a substantial 61 percent 
reported they experience 
difficulty with English. 

The proportion having 
difficulty varied by the 
primary language used by 
survey respondents. 



NOTE: Some of the esti- 
mates in the chart below 
are based on a small number 
of sample cases. The per- 
centages for persons 
who usually speak Japanese, 
Portugese, Italian, and 
Korean may not differ from 
each other if a complete 
census were taken. 



Percent of Persons Having Difficulty With English, by Selected 
"Usual" Languages: July 1975 



ALL LANGUAGES 

OTHER THAN 

ENGLISH 



JAPANESE 



PORTUGUESE 



ITALIAN 



KOREAN 



SPANISH 



GERMAN 




10 20 



30 



LANGUAGE USAGE 



USUAL LANGUAGE 
English 
Spanish 
Other 
Not Reported 

SECOND LANGUAGE 
No Second Language 
English 
Spanish 
Other 
Not Reported 





40 


50 

PERCENT 




Number 




Percent 


in 




of Popu 


lation 


Millions 




4 Years or 


Older 


188.8 






95.9 


4.0 






2.0 


2.5 






1.3 


1.5 






0.8 


178.0 






90.4 


4.9 






2.5 


4.3 






2.2 


8.1 






3.9 


1.5 






1.0 



60 



70 



80 



90 



SOURCE BUREAU OF THE CENSUS 



12 PERSONAL INCOME 



$6-Billion Increase 
in Personal Income 
Posted During June 

Total personal income in- 
creased $6 billion in 
June to a seasonally ad- 
justed annual rate of 
$1,368.9 billion. This 
was the smallest dollar 
increase in 14 months. 

Private wages and 
salaries declined $2.2 



billion in June, compared 
with a May increase of 
$5.3 billion. This was the 
first decrease since April 
1975 and was largely a re- 
sult of declining average 
weekly hours. Payrolls in 
commodity-producing indus- 
tries were virtually un- 
changed following a $1.8- 
billion increase in May. 
Distributive industry pay- 
rolls declined $2.2 billion 



in June, compared with 
a $1 .6-billion increase 
in May. Payrolls in 
service industries edged up 
$0.2 billion, compared with 
a $1.9-billion increase 
in May. 

Government and government 
enterprise wages and sala- 
ries increased $1 billion, 
about the same as in May. 

Transfer payments were 
unchanged in June, remaining 



at a level of $187.1 
billion. This was the 
second straight month that 
transfer payments did not 
increase. 

Note: Personal income date 
have been revised back to 
1973 to reflect the revisions 
of the national income 
and product accounts 
that are made each July. 



1,400 



BILLIONS OF DOLLARS 



1,200 



1,000 



800 



600 



400 



200 



Personal Income 




TOTAL- 



PRIVATE WAGES 
AND SALARIES^ 




Z 



/ 



900 



800 



700 



600 



500 



400 



300 



200 



100 





JUNE 


MAY 


JUNE 


PERSONAL INCOME 


1975 


1976 


1976 






Billions of Dollars 




TOTAL 


1,253.7 


1,362.9 


1,368.9 


Wage and Salary Disbursements 


797.4 


883.3 


882.1 


Private Wages and Salaries 


622.6 


694.6 


692.4 


Commodity-Producing Industries 


269.9 


303.5 


303.4 


Distributive Industries 


193.3 


213.9 


211.7 


Service Industries 


159.4 


177.2 


177.4 


Government Wages and Salaries 


174.8 


188.7 


189.7 


Transfer Payments 


189.2 


187.1 


187.1 



BILLIONS OF DOLLARS 




1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 

SOURCE BUREAU OF ECONOMIC ANALYSIS 



197 1 



1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 



AVERAGE WORKWEEK & REAL EARNINGS 



13 



Average Workweek, 
Spendable Earnings 
Drop During June 

The length of the average 
workweek for all production 
and nonsuperviosry workers 
on private nonagricultural 
payrolls declined 0.2 hour 
in June to 36.1 hours, a 
return to the lower 
April level. 

With the exception of 



the manufacturing workweek, 
which remained unchanged, 
all major U.S. industries 
declined over the month. 
Transportation and public 
utilities dropped 0.4 hour 
to 39.4 hours and led all 
decreases. 

Factory overtime edged 
downward 0.1 hour, but 
remained 0.8 hour above the 
low recorded in April 1975. 



Real gross average weekly 
earnings (1967 dollars) 
decreased 1 percent in June 
to $102.50. This was due 
to the combined effects of 
the 0.6-percent decrease in 
average weekly hours, no 
change in the average hourly 
earnings, and a 0.5-percent 
increase in the consumer 
price index. 

Real spendable earnings- 
average real weekly pay 



minus Social Security and 
Federal income tax rates 
applicable to a married 
worker with three depend- 
ents who earned the average 
amount— decreased 0.9 per- 
cent to $91.15. Over last 
May, real spendable earn- 
ings dropped 0.4 percent, 
due to the offsetting effect 
of reduced tax liabilities 
starting in May 1975. 



AVERAGE WEEKLY HOURS 




190 



180 



170 



160 



150 



140 



DOLLARS PER WEEK 




130 



120 



1 10 



100 



1971 



1972 



1973 



1974 



1975 



1976 



1971 



1972 



1973 



1974 



1975 



1976 



AVERAGE OVERTIME HOURS 




1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 

SOURCE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS 





JUNE 


MAY 


JUNE 


AVERAGE WORKWEEK 


1975 


1976 


1976 






Average Weekly Hours 


Private Nonagricultural 


36.0 


36.3 


36.1 


Transportation and Public Utilities 


39.5 


39.8 


39.4 


Manufacturing 


39.3 


40.2 


40.2 


Factory Overtime 


2.4 


3.2 


3.1 


REAL EARNINGS 




Dollars Per Week 




Gross Average Weekly Earnings 








Current Dollars 


$162.26 


$175.33 


174.36 


1967 Dollars 


$101.10 


$103.56 


102.50 


Spendable Average Weekly Earnings 








Current Dollars 


$146.91 


$155.78 


$155.04 


1967 Dollars 


$91.48 


$92.01 


$91.15 



14 EMPLOYMENT & UNEMPLOYMENT 



Unemployment Rate Up to 
7.5% During June While 
Employment Dips 

Total civilian employment 
moved downward for the first 
time since November 1975 
while unemployment moved 
upward. 

The number of people 
with jobs declined 197,000 
to 87.5 million. Adult 
men were the hardest hit 



group, with 31 1 ,000 losing 
their jobs. Adult female 
employment, rising 181,000 
in June, was partially off- 
setting. 

An additional 283,000 
workers were unemployed in 
June, bringing the total up 
to 7.1 million. 

The civilian labor force, 
edging upward 86,000, re- 
mained virtually unchanged 
at 94.6 million. 



The overall unemployment 
rate moved upward in June 
to 7.5 percent, the first 
increase in 9 months. 
Unemployment among heads of 
households, especially 
among male family heads, 
increased in June, as did 
the rates for married men 
and full-time workers. 



MILLIONS OF PERSONS 



UNEMPLOYMENT RATE (PERCENT) 



Civilian Labor Force and Employment 





ADULT FEMALE 
EMPLOYMENT 



ADULT MALE 
EMPLOYMENT 



1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 

SOURCE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS 




1971 



1972 



1973 



1974 



1975 



1976 





JUNE 


MAY 


JUNE 


EMPLOYMENTS UNEMPLOYMENT 


1975 


1976 


1976 






Millions of Persons 




Civilian Labor Force 


92.6 


94.6 


94.6 


Civilian Employment 


84.5 


87.7 


87.5 


Adult Males 


47.3 


48.6 


48.4 


Adult Females 


30.3 


31.7 


31.8 


Teenagers (ages 16-19) 


7.0 


7.4 


7.3 


UNEMPLOYMENT RATES 




Percent 




All Workers, Total 


8.7 


7.3 


7.5 


Full-Time Workers 


8.4 


6.8 


7.4 


Household Heads 


6.1 


4.8 


5.1 


White, Total 


8.0 


6.6 


6.8 


Adult Males 


6.4 


5.1 


5.4 


Adult Females 


7.6 


6.3 


6.5 


Teenagers 


18.9 


16.3 


16.1 


Black and Other, Total 


14.0 


12.2 


13.3 


Adult Males 


11.8 


9.2 


10.7 


Adult Females 


12.0 


10.4 


11.3 


Teenagers 


36.0 


38.5 


40.3 



EMPLOYMENT & UNEMPLOYMENT 



15 



Black Jobless Rates 
Increase far Males, 
Females, Teenagers 

Increased unemployment rates 
were registered for every 
category of worker except 
white teenagers. 

Joblessness rose most 
amonp black workers. 
The rate for black adult 
males jumped from 9.2 
percent to 10.7 



percent, while the rate 
among black adult women 
climbed from 10.4 percent 
to 1 1 .3 percent. The un- 
employment rate for black 
teenagers edged upward to 
a 5-year high of 40.3 
percent. 

Unemployment increases 
among white worker cate- 
gories were less pronounced. 
An overall increase from 
6.6 percent to 6.8 percent 



was the result of small 
gains among male and female 
workers, which was partially 
offset by a decline in 
white teenage unemployment. 



UNEMPLOYMENT RATE (PERCENT) 




TEENAGERS, BLACK AND 
OTHER RACES 



TEENAGERS, WHITE 



ADULT FEMALES, BLACK 
AND OTHER RACES 

ADULT MALES, BLACK AND 
OTHER RACES 



ADULT FEMALES, WHITE 
ADULT MALES, WHITE 



197 1. 



1972 



1973 



1974 



1975 



1976 



SOURCE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS 



16 EMPLOYMENT & UNEMPLOYMENT 



Unemployment Rate 
for White-Collar 
Workers Down to 4.4% 

The overall white-collar 
unemployment rate dropped 
to 4.4 percent, the lowest 
level since February 1975. 
A decline to 6.1 percent 
in the jobless rate for 
clerical workers was mainly 
responsible for the lowered 



white-collar unemployment 
rate. 

Joblessness among blue- 
collar workers rose from 
9 percent to 9.3 percent 
in June. The increased 
rate resulted from 
a rise of 1.1 percentage 
points in the rate among 
unemployed craft and 
kindred workers. The jobless 
rate in construction, rising 



from 14.1 percent to 17 
percent, led all industries 
in June unemployment rate 
increases. 

The increase from 7.3 
percent to 7.6 percent in 
manufacturing primarily 
occurred in the nondurable 
sector, which surpassed 
the jobless rate in dura- 
ble manufacturing for the 
second time this year. 



The drop to 4.2 percent 
in the unemployment rate 
among government workers 
was the major offsetting 
movement among industry 
groups. 



UNEMPLOYMENT RATE (PERCENT) 



UNEMPLOYMENT RATE (PERCENT) 





1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 

SOURCE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS 



1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 



DURATION OF UNEMPLOYMENT & HELP-WANTED INDEX 



17 



Number of Long-Term 
Unemployed Increases; 
Help-Wanted Ads Dip 

The number of workers un- 
employed from 5 to 14 weeks 
rose 314,000 (16.1 percent) 
in June, and the number 
unemployed 15 weeks or more 
went up 217,000. This marks 
the first increase in this 
category in 6 months. As a 
result, the average unemployed 



worker was without a job 
for 16.9 weeks, up almost 
2 weeks over the May level 
and about equal to the re- 
cession high of last Decem- 
ber. The number of workers 
unemployed less than 5 weeks 
declined for the second 
consecutive month. 

The Index of Help-Wanted 
Advertising, reflecting the 
0.2-percent decline in May's 
unemployment rate, rose to 



93 in May, 19 points above 
the level of a year ago. 
However, the Index, which 
measures the volume of 
classified advertising in 
51 major U.S. newspapers, 
remains 36 points below the 
July 1973 high. 



THOUSANDS OF WORKERS 




Q ' » ' ■ ■ ■ » > ■ ■ ■ t I » ■ ■ ■ t ■ i i ■ i i I ■ i ■■■■■■■■ i I ■■■■■■■■ ■ ■ i I i i i i i i ■ i i i . I ■ i ■ t . i ■ t i i 

1971 1972 1973 1-974 1-975 1-976 



130- 

125- 

120- 

115- 

1 10- 

105- 

100- 

95- 

90- 

85- 

80- 

75- 

70- 



INDEX 



Help-Wanted 
Advertising " 






1971 1972 1973 

SOURCE THE CONFERENCE BOARD 



1974 1975 1976 



NUMBER OF WEEKS 




DURATION OF UNEMPLOYMENT 


JUNE 
1975 


MAY 
1976 


JUNE 
1976 






Thousands of Persons 




NUMBEROF WORKERS 

UNEMPLOYED 
Less Than 5 Weeks 
5 to 14 Weeks 
15 Weeks and Over 


2,733 
2,511 
2,751 


2,855 
1,947 
1,998 

Number of Weeks 


2,618 
2,261 
2,215 


AVERAGE (MEAN) DURATION OF 
UNEMPLOYMENT 

INDEX OF HELP-WANTED 
ADVERTISING 
(Index, 1967=100) 


15.3 

MAY 
1975 

74 


15.0 

APRIL 
1976 

91 


16.9 

MAY 
1976 

93 



Q I ■ ■ i ■ i . . . i i i I ■ . ■ ■ ■ . . . ■ ■ i I i t i i . t i t i t i 1 i t « i i . i ■ i t i I . i i i i i . i ■ . i 1 i i i i . i f i i i ^ 

1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 



SOURCE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS 



18 PUBLIC EMPLOYMENT 



States, Localities 
Pace '74-' 75 Increase 
in Public Employment 

Total civilian public 
employment in October 1975 
was 14,986,000, an increase 
of 358,000 (2.4 percent) 
over October 1974. Most 
of the rise was accounted 
for by local governments, 
which recorded an increase 
of 189,000 employees. 



The number of State govern- 
ment workers rose 113,000 
to 3,268,000, while Federal 
employment edged upward to 
2,890,000. 

Since 1960 the number of 
local government employees 
has shot up over 80 per- 
cent, while State employment 
has more than doubled. In 
contrast, Federal employ- 
ment has increased 19 per- 
cent over the same period. 



In 1975 school districts 
employed nearly one-third 
of all public employees 

Local government pay- 
rolls in 1975 continued to 
increase more rapidly in 
absolute amount than those 
of Federal or State govern- 
ments. Public civilian 
payrolls for the month of 
October 1975 totaled $13.2 
billion, about $1.2 billion 
more than for October 1974. 



The Federal Government 
portion was nearly $3.6 
billion, and payrolls of 
State and of local govern- 
ments were about $2.7 
billion and $7 billion, 
respectively. 



10 



MILL IONS OF EMPLOYEES 



BILLIONS OF DOLLARS 



1 1 

State, Local, and Federal 
-Civilian Public Employment 




1 1 

October Payrolls of State, Local, 
and Federal Civilian 






Public En 


iployees 














LOCAI 


- 


















FEDERAL-, 


_^ 












^^_ 






"^ STATE 












1 1 



1960 



1963 



1966 



1969 



1972 



1975 



1960 



1963 



1966 



1969 



1972 



1975 



Number of State and Local Government Employees, 
by Type of Government: October 1975 



Total: 12.097 Million 



STATES 
3.268 MILLION 



COUNTIES 
1.563 MILLION 




MUNICIPALITIES 
2.521 MILLION 



SPECIAL 
DISTRICTS 
0.383 MILLION 



Detail does not add to 
total due to rounding. 



TOWNSHIPS 
0.392 MILLION 



SCHOOL DISTRICTS 
3.969 MILLION 



PUBLIC EMPLOYMENT 



OCTOBER 
1960 



Federal Government 
State Governments 
Local Governments 

PUBLIC CIVILIAN PAYROLLS 

Federal Government 
State Governments 
Local Governments 



OCTOBER 
1974 



OCTOBER 
1975 



(Millions of Employees) 



2.421 
1.527 
4.860 



1.12 
0.52 
1.69 



2.874 
3.155 
8.639 

(Billions of Dollars) 



3.29 
2.41 
6.38 



2.890 
3.268 
8.828 



3.58 
2.65 
7.01 



SOURCE BUREAU OF THE CENSUS 



Special Feature 



health 



19 



National Health 
Expenditures 

National Health Expenditures 
Selected Fiscal Years 20 

National Health Expenditures 
as Percent of GNP: Selected 
Fiscal Years 20 

National Health Expenditures 
by Type: Selected Fiscal 
Years 21 

Personal Health Care 
Expenditures 

Expenditures for Personal 
Health Care: Fiscal 1966 
and 1975 22 

Personal Health Care Expend- 
itures, by Source and Type: 
Fiscal 1975 23 

Medical Care Prices 

Consumer Price Index: 
Selected Periods 24 

Physicians' Fees 24 

Semiprivate Hospital 
Room 24 

Drugs and Prescriptions 24 

Dentists' Fees 24 

Health Status 

Health Status— Good or 
Excellent: 1974 25 

Nonfederal Hospital Beds 

Nonfederal Hospital Beds: 
1974 26 

Hospital Discharges 

Discharges From Short-Stay 
Hospitals: 1964 and 1974 27 






Physician Visits 

Physician Visits: 1964 and 
1974 28 

Dentist Visits 

Dentist Visits: 1964 and 
1974 29 

Nursing Homes 

Nursing Home Residents, by 
Sex: 1973-74 30 

Nursing Home Residents, by 
Age: 1973-74 30 

Nursing Home Residents, by 
Monthly Charges: 1973-74 30 

Nursing Home Beds: 
Selected Years 31 

Nursing Home Employees: 
Selected Years 31 

Expenditures for Nursing 
Home Care: Selected Years 31 

Death Rates 

Age-Adjusted Death Rates: 
1900-1975 32 



Infant Mortality 

Infant Mortality Rates: 
1960-1975 33 



Life Expectancy 

Life Expectancy at Birth: 
Selected Years 34 

Life Expectancy at Age 65: 
Selected Years 34 




20 NATIONAL HEALTH EXPENDITURES 



Health Care Spending 
Increases 14% After 
Price Freeze Ends 

Americans spent $1 18.5 
billion for health care in 
Fiscal Year 1975. This 
amount, spent during the 
first full year after the 
economic stabilization 
program ended, was up 
14 percent from the 1974 
total. 



This increase in health 
expenditures was accompa- 
nied by a slackening in the 
growth of the gross national 
product (GNP) in 1975. 
Accordingly, health care 
outlays as a proportion of 
GNP rose from the 1974 
level of 7.7 to an unprec- 
edented level of 8.3 per- 
cent. 



NATIONAL 

HhALTH 

EXPENDI- PERCENT 

TURES TOTAL OF GNP 





Billions 




FISCAL 


of 




YEARS 


Dollars 


Percent 


1950 


12.0 


4.6 


1955 


17.3 


4.6 


1960 


25.9 


5.2 


1965 


38.9 


5.9 


1966 


42.1 


5.9 


1967 


47.9 


6.2 


1968 


53.8 


6.5 


1969 


60.6 


6.7 


1970 


69.2 


7.2 


1971 


77.2 


7.6 


1972 


86.7 


7.9 


1973 


95.4 


7.8 


1974 


104.0 


7.7 


1975 


118.5 


8.3 



120 



1 10 



100 



90 



80 



70 



60 



50 



40 



30 



20 



10 



BILLIONS OF DOLLARS 













National H 


ealth Expenditures: 


Selected Fiscal Years 











































































































1950 



1955 



1960 



1965 



1970 



197f 



10 



PERCENT OF GNP 



National Health Expenditures as Percent of GNP: 



















































1950 



1955 



1960 



1965 



1970 



197f 



SOURCE SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION 



NATIONAL HEALTH EXPENDITURES 



21 



Hospital Care Takes 
Major Share of Health 
Expenditures in U.S. 

Hospital care continues to 
represent the major share 
(39.4 percent) of spending 
for health purposes. 
Hospital expenditures in 
1975 totaled $46.6 billion, 
16.5 percent more than the 
amount a year earlier. 
This rise in hospital 



expenditures in recent 
years has been due pri- 
marily to increased expense 
per patient day rather than 
to increased use of 
hospitals. 

Expenditures for nursing 
home care is the most 
rapidly growing component 
of medical care, increasing 



from $3.8 billion (or 5.5 
percent of the total) in 
1970 to $9.0 billion (or 
7.6 percent) in 1975. 

Note: Other expenses— 
13.1 percent of the total- 
are composed of Government 
public health activities, 
expenses for prepayment and 



administration, eyeglasses 
and appliances, professional 
services other than physi- 
cians and dentists, plus 
other miscellaneous health 
services. 



100 



PERCENT 



90-- 



80-- 



70-- 



60-- 



50-- 



40-- 



30-- 



20-- 



10-- 



2%-- 



31% 



22% 



8% 



14% 



7% 



17% 



2%-- 



33% 



21% 



8% 



13% 



5% 



18% 



2% 



33% 



22% 



8% 



14% 



7% 



16% 



34% 



22% 



7% 



12% 



3% 



8% 



14% 



37% 



19% 



7% 



10% 



6% 



8% 



1 4% 



39% 



18% 



6% 



9% 



7% 



7% 



13% 



39% 



19% 



9% 



8% 



6% 



13% 



National Health Expendi- 
tures, by Type: Selected 
Fiscal Year 



•HOSPITAL CARE 



•PHYSICIANS' SERVICES 



-DENTISTS' SERVICES 



DRUGS AND 
'DRUG SUNDRIES 



-NURSING HOME CARE 



RESEARCH AND MEDICAL 
'FACILITIES CONSTRUCTION 



-OTHER 



1950 

($12.0) 



1955 1960 1965 1970 1974 1975 
($17.3) ($25.9) ($38.9) ($69.2) ($104.0) ($118.5) 

TOTAL IN BILLIONS 



SOURCE SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION 



22 PERSONAL HEALTH CARE EXPENDITURES 



Public Funds Pay 66% 
of Elderly Health Care 
Expenditures in 1975 

Of the total $118.5 
billion spent in 1975 for 
health, $103.2 billion 
was spent on personal 
health care. The propor- 
tion of personal health 
expenditures paid directly 
by the individual has 
been declining. 



In 1975, one-third of 
all personal health care 
expenditures were paid 
directly by the individual, 
compared with one-half of 
all expenditures a decade 
ago. The most dramatic 
change has been the increase 
in public spending for the 
elderly, largely as a con- 
sequence of the Medicare 
and Medicaid programs. 



Public funds— Federal, 
State and local— now pay 
for two-thirds of the 
health care for the elderly 
compared with less than 
one-third a decade ago. 



100 



PERCENT DISTRIBUTION 



90 -- 



80 



70-- 



60-- 



50-- 



40-- 



30 



20 -- 



10-- 



2% 



22% 



25% 



51% 



40% 



\ 



26% 



33% 



2%' 



20% 



27% 



51% 



29% 



35% 



34% 



•2% 



1% 



/ 



30% 



16% 



53% 



66% 



5% 



29% 



Expenditures for Personal 
Health Care: Fiscal 1966 
and 1975 



PHILANTHROPY 
AND INDUSTRY 



LESS THAN 1% 



•GOVERNMENT 



PRIVATE 
HEALTH 
INSURANCE 



THIRD 
PARTY 
PAYMENTS 



DIRECT PAYMENTS 



1966 1975 

(S36.2) (S103.2) 

ALL AGES 



1966 1975 

(S28.0) (S72.8) 

UNDER AGE 65 
(TOTAL IN BILLIONS) 



1966 

(S8.2) 



1975 

(S30.4) 



AGE 65 AND OVER 



SOURCE SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION 



PERSONAL HEALTH EXPENDITURES 



23 



Over 90% of Hospital 
Expenses Paid by Third 
Parties During 1975 

Third party payments during 
1975 accounted for over 90 
percent of all hospital 
expenses, 66 percent of 
physician expenses, and 
only 15 percent of dental 
expenses and expenses for 
drugs and drug sundries. 



Almost 60 percent of 
expenditures for nursing 
home care are made from 
government funds. 



PERCENT DISTRIBUTION 



100 




TOTAL* HOSPITAL 
CARE 


PHYSICIANS' 
SERVICES 


DENTISTS' 
SERVICES 


DRUGS AND 
DRUG SUNDRIES 


NURSING 
HOMES 


($103.2) ($46.6) 


($22.1) 


($7.5) 


($10.6) 


($9.0) 


Includes "All Other Services" 











Personal Health Care 
Expenditures by Source 
and Type: Fiscal 1975 



PHILANTHROPY AND 
INDUSTRY 

GOVERNMENT 

PRIVATE HEALTH 
INSURANCE 

DIRECT PAYMENTS 



PRIVATE HEALTH 
INSURANCE AND 
DIRECT PAYMENTS 
(NOT AVAILABLE 
SEPARATELY) 



SOURCE SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION 



24 MEDICAL CARE PRICES 



Medical Care Costs 
Rise Faster Than All 
Consumer Payments 

Medical care prices have 
generally been rising more 
rapidly than the prices 
of all consumer goods and 
services combined. The 
only exception was during 
the economic stabilization 
period of August 1971 to 
April 1974. 





MARCH 


DEC 


MARCH 




1975 


1975 


1976 


PHYSICIANS' FEES 


165 


178 


184 


SEMIPRIVATE HOSPITAL ROOMS 


228 


249 


262 


DRUGS AND PRESCRIPTIONS 


117 


122 


124 


DENTISTS' FEES 


159 


166 


169 



Hospital Care Rates 
Fastest Rising Part 
of Medical Costs 

The charges for semiprivate 
hospital rooms has been the 
fastest rising component of 
medical goods and services 
since 1971. However, drugs 
and prescriptions rose at 
the unusually high rate 
of 7.4 percent in 1975. 



ANNUALIZED RATE OF CHANGE 



INDEX, 1967=100 



16 



14 -- 



12 -- 



10 -- 



8 -- 



6 -- 



4 -- 



2 -- 



Consumer Price Index: Selected Periods 



B 



CONSUMER PRICE INDEX, ALL ITEMS 
CONSUMER PRICE INDEX, MEDICAL CARE 



11.5 




8. 1 



6.5 



6.7 



3.7 



2.4 





5.8 



6.4 






4.3 






PREMEOICAHE 
FY 1963-66 



EARLY MEDICARE 
FY 1966*9 



PRE-ECONOMIC 
STABILIZATION 

FY 1969-71 



ECONOMIC 
STABILIZATION 



POST-ECONOMIC 
STABILIZATION 



AUG. 1971-APR. 1974 APR. 1974-MAY 1976 



300 



200 



100 

1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 



300 



1 1 

Physicians' 


Fees 






























i i i 


U.l. 


i i..i_ 


■ ■ ■ 


• 1 1 


1 1 1 



i i i 

Semiprivate 
Hospital Rooms 











































200 



100 

1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 



300 



200 



300 



200 



00 



Drugs and Prescriptions 



100 ' rl ■ ' ' ' ' |J - LL 



1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 



De 


ntist 


s' Fe 


es 
































i i ■ 


1 1 1 


■ 1 1 


■ ■ ' 




■ ■ ■ 



1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 



SOURCE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS AND SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION 



HEALTH STATUS 



25 



In General, Americans 
Believe Their Health 
Excellent or Good 

Most Americans think of 
themselves as being in 
good health. In response 
to the Health Interview 
Survey, conducted by the 
National Center for Health 
Statistics, the majority 
of people regarded their 
overall health as 



excellent or good as com- 
pared with other people 
their own age. 

However, those with 
lower incomes assess their 
health less favorably than 
do those with higher in- 
comes. The largest differ- 
ential is in the 45- to 
64-age group. Within this 
age group chronic illness 
often results in reduced 
family income. 



FAMILY INCOME 
UNDER $5,000 
$5,000 TO $9,999 
$10,000 TO $14,999 
$15,000 AN DOVER 





PERCENT 












































UU " 


























89 


93 


96 


97 




an 


94 




Reported Health Status - 
Good or Excellent: 1974 


_ 












90- 




87 












88 
























81 
















- 


80- 
















































69 








72 








70- 






68 




60- 




























58 












50- 






















49 






















40- 












































- 


30 - 












































- 


20-J 














































10- 

n - 


















































UNDER 17 YEARS 
SOURCE NATIONAL CENTER FOR HEALTH STATISTICS 



17 TO 44 YEARS 



45 TO 64 YEARS 



65 YEARS AND OVER 



26 NONFEDERAL HOSPITAL BEDS 



Nonfederal Hospital 
Beds Average 4.5 Per 
1,000 Persons in U.S. 

The number of general non- 
federal hospital beds per 
1,000 persons in 1974 
ranged from 2.1 in Alaska 
to 6.7 in North Dakota. 

States with a high 
bed/population ratio are 
concentrated in the upper 
Midwest. Many of the 



States in this area have 
a low physician/population 
ratio, reflecting alternate 
patterns of medical care. 
In general, States with 
stable or declining popula- 
tions tend to have high 
bed/population ratios while 
States with growing popula- 
tions are among the States 
with low bed/population 
ratios. 



Nonfederal 
Hospital Beds: 
1974 




SOURCE NATIONAL CENTER FOR HEALTH STATISTICS. HEALTH INTERVIEW SURVEY 



HOSPITAL DISCHARGES 



27 



Hospitalizations 
Greater for Poor Than 
for Nonpoor in 1974 

The number of hospitaliza- 
tions per 100 persons has 
increased markedly over the 
past decade among the poor. 
(The poor are defined as 
the lowest 20 percent of 
the population with respect 
to family income— less than 



$3,000 in 1964 and less 
than $6,000 in 1974.) 

This trend reflects to 
a large extent the increased 
access to medical facilities 
made available to the poor 
through the Medicaid and 
Medicare programs. 

Among the remainder of 
the population there has 
been no marked change in 
hospital use. 



30 



NUMBER OF DISCHARGES PER 100 PERSONS 



25 -- 



20-- 



15-- 



10 -- 



5-- 



Discharges from Short-Stay Hospitals: 1964 and 1974 



28.1 



POOR 
NONPOOR 



22.7 



19.8 



18.1 



8.5 



7.0 



5.8 



6.4 



16.1 



.. 14.1 

n 



14.6 



14.8 



20.2 



17.9 



16.1 






22.0 



1964 1974 

UNDER 17 



1964 1974 

1 7 TO 44 



1964 



1974 



45 TO 64 



1964 1974 

65 AND OVER 



SOURCE NATIONAL CENTER FOR HEALTH STATISTICS 



28 PHYSICIAN VISITS 



Visits to Physicians 
by Poor Increase 
From 1964 to 1974 

In general, there is more 
illness among the poor than 
the nonpoor. In 1964, the 
poor had fewer visits to 
physicians per person than 
the nonpoor. 



However, by 1974 the 
differences had either been 
reversed or decreased 
considerably. 



NUMBER OF VISITS PER PERSO 

Q 


1 






































o 




Physician Visits: 1964 and 1974 


7 - 


1 POOR 

1 NONPOOR 


l nJ 




6.3 






6.4 




6 - 








6.0 










- 






5.5 






5.4 






















5.1 5.1 




















- 


5- 










4.7 




4.7 




























» J 

4.1 


































A - 
























































3.6 










































3- 


2 3 














































- 


2 - 
















































- 










































































































1 - 


















































- 




















































n - 














1 ■ 



































1964 1974 

UNDER 17 YEARS 



1964 1974 

17 TO 44 YEARS 



1964 1974 1964 1974 

45 TO 64 YEARS 65 YEARS AND OVER 



SOURCE \ATiONAL CENTER FOR HEALTH STATISTICS 



DENTIST VISITS 



29 



Dentist Vi; its by Poor 
Still Lag Behind Those 
of Nonpoor Population 

In dental ca-e, where there 
have not been major Federal 
programs, there have been 
only slight decreases in the 
gap between the average num- 
ber of visists to the dentist 
by the poor and the nonpoor. 



NUMBER OF VISITS PER PERSON 



3.5-- 



3-- 



2.5-- 



2-- 



1 .5-- 



1 -- 



0.5-- 



Dentist Visits: 1964 and 1974 



POOR 
NONPOOR 



2.0 



2.0 



1.7 



1.6 



0.6 



1.0 



1.2 



1.8 



1.4 



1.9 

n 



0.8 



1.1 



1.5 



1.1 



0.6 



0.9 



1964 1974 

UNDER 17 YEARS 



1964 1974 

17 TO 44 YEARS 



1964 1974 

45 TO 64 YEARS 



1964 1974 

65 YEARS AND OVER 



SOURCE NATIONAL CENTER FOR HEALTH STATISTICS 



30 NURSING HOMES 



Average Nursing Home 
Resident is Female 
Over 75 Years Old 



The average monthly 
charge for a nursing home 
resident is more than $450. 



Due to greater longevity of 
the female population, more 
than 7 out of 10 nursing 
home residents are women. 

And, on the average, 
more than 75 percent of 
nursing home residents are 
75 years of age or older. 



1,000 



THOUSANDS OF PERSONS 



800 -- 



600 -- 



400 -- 



200 



Nursing Home 
Residents, by Sex: 
1973-74 



757 
I 1 



318 



450 



THOUSANDS OF PERSONS 



300 -- 



150 -- 



Nursing Home 
Residents, by Age: 
1973-74 



413 



384 



169 



62 



24 



28 



MALE FEMALE 



UNDER 45 45 TO 54 55 TO 64 65 TO 74 75 TO 84 85 AND OVER 

AGE 



450 



THOUSANDS OF PERSONS 



300 -- 



150 -- 



Nursing Home Residents, 
by Monthly Charges: 
1973-74 



407 



284 



93 



LESS THAN 
S100 




136 



S200TO 
S299 



S300 TO 
S399 





42 

□ 

S800 TO 
S999 



32 



31,000 TO 
$1,999 



SOURCE NATIONAL CENTER FOR HEALTH STATISTICS 



MONTHLY CHARGES 



NURSING HOMES 



31 



Nursing Hone Care 
Expenditures Zoom 
Over Past Decade 

Over the past decade the 
number of nursing home 
beds has more than doubled. 
Expenditures for nursing 
home care have increased 
almost six-fold. 

Part of the increase in 
expenditures and beds is 
the result of the present 



substitution of care within 
nursing homes for care 
which previously had been 
provided in mental hospitals 
and other settings. 



Nursing Home Beds: 
Selected Years 



Nursing Home Employees: 
Selected Years 





THOUSANDS 


F BEDS 












1 200 - 






1 , 188 


- 


900- 




826 






600 - 




576 








300- 
n - 









1964 

EMPLOYEES PER 100 RESIDENTS 



1968 



1974 



/ a - 








61.4 




65. 7 


_ 










60- 












47.4 










- 


45^ 






30- 














- 


15 - 

r\ _ 














- 



1964 



1968 



1974 



BILLIONS OF DOLLARS 



Expenditures for 
Nursing Home Care: 
Selected Years 




1964 



1968 



1974 



SOURCE NATIONAL CENTER FOR HEALTH STATISTICS 



32 DEATH RATES 



U.S. Death Rate 
Decline Continues 
to '75 Low of 6.4 

From the mid-1930's to the 
early 1950's overall mor- 
tality rates had been 
declining. 

From about 1954 to 1969 
mortality rates remained 
relatively stable; however 



since that time the rate 
has been declining once 
again. 

The sharp increase in 
the death rate in 1918 was 
due to the influenza 
epidemic. 

In 1975, the age-adjusted 
death rate reached its low- 
est point: 6.4 per 1,000 
population. 



RATE PER 1.000 POPULATION 



10 




Age-Adjusted 


Deaths 


Death Rates 


Per 1,000 


for 


Population 


1900 


17.8 


1905 


16.7 


1910 


15.8 


1915 


14.4 


1920 


14.2 


1925 


13.0 


1930 


12.5 


1935 


11.6 


1940 


10.8 


1945 


9.5 


1950 


8.4 


1955 


7.6 


1960 


7.6 


1965 


7.4 


1970 


7.1 


1975 


6.4 



-1—1 — I — * « ■ 



1900 



1910 



1920 



1930 



1940 



1950 



1960 



1970 



198 



SOURCE -,-TIONAL CENTER FOR HEALTH STATISTICS 



INFANT MORTALITY 

Mortality Rate 
for Infants Drops 
38% Since 1960 

Since 1960, the total 
infant mortality rate in 
the United States has de- 
clined by 38 percent. 

The infant mortality 
rate for black and other 
race infants was almost 60 
percent higher than for 
white infants. 



33 



However, the decline in 
infant mortality during 
the past 10 years has been 
greater for black and 
other races than for white 
infants. 



DEATHS UNDER 1 YEAR PER 1,000 LIVE BIRTHS 



60 



50 



40 



30 



20 



10 



Infant ft 


lortality Rates: IS 


•60-1975 












— 










X^BLACK A 


ND OTHER RACES 














^•n^TOTAL 
















WHITE* 






INFANT MORTALITY RATE 1960 


1965 

Infant Deaths Per 
1,000 Live Births 


1975 








TOTAL 26.0 


24.7 


16.1 








White 22.9 


21.5 


14.4 








Black anc 

— i 


1 Other Races 


43.2 


40.3 


22.9 









1960 1962 1964 

SOURCE NATIONAL CENTER FOR HEALTH STATISTICS 



1966 



1968 



1970 



1972 



1974 



1976 



34 LIFE EXPECTANCY 

Life Expectancy at 
Birth Continues Rise; 
Females Outlive Males 

Since 1900, the life 
expectancy at birth for 
both males and females has 
increased markedly. But 
the gap between the two 
sexes is widening, with 
females outliving males 
by almost 8 years. 



Males at age 65 in 1900 
could expect to live to 
age 76.5, while in 1974 
they could expect to live 
to age 78.4. The com- 
parable figures for females 
are 77.2 years in 1900 
and 82.5 years in 1974. 



AGE IN YEARS 




1900-02 1939-41 1974 
MALE 



1900-02 1939-41 1974 
FEMALE 



100 
90 
80 
70 
60 
50 
40 
30 
20 
10 




AGE IN YEARS 



Life Expectancy at Age 65: Selected Years 



82.5 



76.5 77.1 



78.4 



77.2 



78.6 



1 

1900-02 1939-41 1974 
MALE 



SOURCE NATIONAL CENTER FOR HEALTH STATISTICS 



I 

1900-02 1939-41 1974 
FEMALE 



Section li 



community 



35 



Housing Quality 

Percent of Households With 
More Than One Person Per 
Room: 1950-1974 36 

Percent of Households Lacking 
Some or All Plumbing Facili- 
ties: 1950-1974 37 

Percent of Households With 
Selected Structural Deficien- 
cies: 1974 38 

Percent of Households With 
Selected Breakdowns: 1974 
38 

Households' Overall Rating 
of Structure: 1974 38 

Neighborhood Quality 

Percent of Households Rating 
Neighborhood Services as 
Inadequate: 1974 39 

Percent of Households 
Reporting Undesirable 
Street Conditions: 1974 40 

Households' Overall Rating 
of Neighborhoods: 1974 41 

Map of the Month 42-45 



Crime Index Trends 

Total Crime Index 46 

Violent Crime 46 

Property Crime 46 

Percent Change in Reported 
Serious Crime 47 

By Geographic Region 47 

By Type of Area 47 



Inmates of State 
Correctional Facilities 

Characteristics of Inmates 
of State Correctional 
Facilities 

Sex 48 

Race 48 

Age 48 

Level of Educational Attain- 
ment 48 

Occupation at Time of Arrest 48 

Length of Time on Last Job 48 

Alcohol Consumption at Time 
of Present Offense 49 

Drug Usage 49 

Type of Drugs Ever Used 49 

Most Serious Offense of 
Sentenced Inmates 49 

Correctional Background 49 

Transportation Trends 

Transportation Accidents: 
1965-1975 50 

Transportation Fatalities: 
1965-1975 50 

Transportation Fatalities, 
by Mode: 1975 50 

Daily Average Motor Gasoline 
Consumption, by Month: 1973- 
1976 51 

Public School Systems 

Local Public School Systems 
in the U.S.: 1939-40 to 
1975-76 52 

Percent Distribution of 
Public School Systems and 
Pupils, by Size of System: 
Fall 1975 52 




36 HOUSING QUALITY 



Continual Decline Seen 
in Households With More 
Than One Person Per Room 

The number of U.S. house- 
holds with more than one 
person per room has declin- 
ed steadily since 1950. In 
that year, nearly 16 per- 
cent of all households 
averaged more than one 
person per room. By 1974 
only 1 out of 20 households 



reported more than one 
person per room. While a 
larger percentage of black 
households reported more 
than one person per room, 
there has also been a con- 
tinuing decline in their 
proportion. 

By location, there were 
small variations in the 
proportions of households 
reporting more than one 



person per room, with 
households outside of large 
metropolitan areas report- 
ing the largest proportion. 





PERCENT OF HOUSEHOLDS 




















DU " 
















45 - 












1 TOTAL HOUSEHOLDS 


- 


40 - 












■ BLACK HOUSEHOLDS 


- 


35- 














- 


30 - 




28. 3 • 


fr* 








- 


25 - 














- 


20 - 










19.9 




- 






15.8 














15 - 


... 






8 . 2 






12.6 




- 




r ■ 










10 - 
















5. 3 


5 - 








n - 






* 












!■ 







Percent of Households With 
More Than One Person 
Per Room 

By Race: 1950-1974 



1960 



1950 

•DATA NOT AVAILABLE 
"DATA ARE FOR BLACK AND OTHER RACES. SEE NOTES AND DEFINITIONS. 



PERCENT OF HOUSEHOLDS 



1970 



1974 




By Location: 1974 



INSIDE 
SMSA ' S 



N NOT IN 
CENTRAL CENTRAL 
CITIES CITIES 



OUTSIDE 
SMSA ' S 



SOURCE OF THE CENSUS 



HOUSING QUALITY 



37 



Plumbing Facilities in 
U.S. Households Show 
Marked Improvement 

The proportion of total 
U.S. households reporting 
less than complete plumb- 
ing facilities dropped 
from 34 percent in 1950 
to 3 percent in 1974. 
The percentage for black 
households also decreased 



dramatically, from 70 per- 
cent in 1950 to 10 percent 
in 1974. 

Nearly 7 percent of the 
Nation's households located 
outside large metropolitan 
areas reported incomplete 
or no plumbing. This was 
a considerably higher pro- 
portion than in any other 
location. 



PERCENT OF HOUSEHOLDS 



80 



70 -- 



60-- 



50 -- 



40 



30-1 



20-- 



10-- 



70.5 




B 



TOTAL HOUSEHOLDS 
BLACK HOUSEHOLDS 



40.7 




5.9 


16.2 



9.6 



3.2 



J 



n 



Percent of Households Lacking 
Some or All Plumbing Facilities 



BY RACE: 1950-1974 



1950 



1960 



1970 



1974 





PERCENT OF HOUSEHOLDS 














25 








20- 






- 


15- 
















no- 






- 


5- 




6.6 










_ 


- 


3.2 










I 




1.7 1.8 




1.5 




I I I 









BY LOCATION: 1974 



U.S. 
TOTAL 



INSIDE 


IN 


NOT IN 


OUTSIDE 


SMSA'S 


CENTRAL 


CENTRAL 


SMSA'S 




CITIES 


CITIES 





SOURCE BUREAU OF THE CENSUS 



38 HOUSING QUALITY 



Wet Basements Ranked 
Highest Among Reported 
Housing Deficiencies 

The general structural 
deficiency reported most 
often by U.S. households 
was basement water leak- 
age— 28 percent of total 
households. Exposed elec- 
tric wiring, the least 



frequent problem, was re- 
ported by only about 3 per- 
cent. 

Nationally, 7 percent of 
all households reported 
breakdowns in heating equip- 
ment during 1974. This 
was the most frequently 
reported serious equipment 
or facility failure. The 
least reported problem was 
with sewage disposal— 
1 percent. 



Overall, most households 
rated their structures as 
excellent or good. More 
than 35 percent considered 
their homes in excellent 
condition, and 46 percent 
good. Only 3 percent of 
all housing units nation- 
wide were rated poor by 
their occupants. 



OPEN CRACKS OR HOLES IN 
INTERIOR CEILINGS AND WALLS 

EXPOSED ELECTRICWIRING 

WATER LEAKAGE IN BASEMENT 

LEAKY ROOF 



12 



15 



18 



21 



24 



27 



30 



1 


-T— 


1 


1 


H 1 


-1 1 (- 






5. 7 


Percent of Households 
With Selected Structural 
Deficiencies: 1974 








3.4 




















27.5 








1 


H 1 








7.0 




1 


-r— 


1 


H 1 f- 





12 15 18 

PERCENT OF HOUSEHOLDS 



21 



24 



27 



30 



SEWAGE DISPOSAL 

FLUSH TOILET 

HEATING EQUIPMENT 

WATER SUPPLY 




12 



15 



18 



21 



24 



27 



30 



Percent of Households With 
Selected Breakdowns: 1974 



7.3 



12 15 18 

PERCENTOF HOUSEHOLDS 



21 



24 



27 



30 



50 



PERCENTOF HOUSEHOLDS 



45 -- 
40 -- 
35 -- 
30-- 
25 -- 
20 -- 
15 -- 
10 -- 
5 -- 
— 



45.9 



35 . 4 




Households' Overall Rating 
of Structure: 1974 



15.4 



EXCELLENT 
SOURCE BUREAU OF THE CENSUS 



GOOD 



FAIR 



5.3 



POOR 



NEIGHBORHOOD QUALITY 



39 



Public Transportation 
Rated Inadequate by 
41% of All Households 

Of neighborhood services 
rated across the Nation, 
public transportation was 
considered the most in- 
adequate, with 41 percent 
of all households reporting 
dissatisfaction. Black 
households also rated 
public transportation as 



the most inadequate neigh- 
borhood service. Shopping 
facilities were reported in- 
adequate by 13Y2 percent of 
total U.S. households 
and by 20 percent of black 
households. Schools re- 
ceived the most satisfac- 
tory rating by households 
of all races. 



Neighborhood services 
on the whole received 
better ratings inside than 
outside of large metropoli- 
tan areas. 



CA 


PERCENT OF HOUSEHOLDS 






































Percent of Households Rating 






40.9 




Neighborhood Services as 
Inadequate: 1974 


40 - 
















By Race 














TOTAL HOUSEHOLDS 


30- 












BLACK HOUSEHOLDS 








25. 1 






20- 




1 


20. 1 

■ 


1 O A 


15.3 


- 






13.5 
















•'■■-' 11.8 








m - 










9.6 
















7 . 4 




6 .8 








5. 2 






4 .9 






n - 













PUBLIC 
TRANSPORTATION 



SHOPPING 



HOSPITALS, 
HEALTH CLINICS 



POLICE 



FIRE 
PROTECTION 



SCHOOLS 



5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 



PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION 



SHOPPING 



HOSPITALS, HEALTH CLINICS 



POLICE 



FIRE PROTECTION 



SCHOOLS 



= 



13.5 



11.7 



| 17.5 



12.4 



17.1 




33.8 



]40.9 



By Location 



U.S. TOTAL 
INSIDE SMSA'S 
OUTSIDE SMSA'S 



55.8 



5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 

PERCENT OF HOUSEHOLDS 



SOURCE BUREAU OF THE CENSUS 



40 NEIGHBORHOOD QUALITY 



Street Noise, Traffic 
Lead Complaint List 
in U.S. Neighborhoods 

Undesirable street noise 
was reported in their 
neighborhoods by nearly 
half of all U.S. households 
in 1974. Thirty-two per- 
cent of total households, 
and 36 percent of black 
households also reported 
the presence of heavy 



traffic. The proportion of 
black households reporting 
the presence of abandoned 
buildings was more than 
twice the national average. 

Noise and crime were 
reported more frequently 
inside than outside of 
large metropolitan areas, 



while inadequate street 
lighting occurred more 
frequently outside standard 
metropolitan statistical 
areas. 





PERCENT OF HOUSEHOLDS 




























DU ~ 












55 - 








Percent of Households Reporting 
Undesirable Street Conditions: 


- 


50 - 




49 . 4 


4.R 1 






1974 
By Race 


- 










45 - 








40 - 












1 TOTAL HOUSEHOLDS 


- 










35.7 






1 BLACK HOUSEHOLDS 


- 


35 - 








31.5 






30 - 






25 - 


















24.3 


- 


















21.1 






19.4 


- 


20 - 






19.2 










1 /.2 








15 - 






10 - 


























6 .8 






- 


5 - 
n - 



































NOISE 



HEAVY 
TRAFFIC 



INADEQUATE 
STREET LIGHTING 



CRIME 



ABANDONED 
BUILDINGS 



10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 



NOISE 



HEAVY TRAFFIC 



INADEQUATE STREET LIGHTING 



CRIME 



ABANDONED BUILDINGS 



SOURCE BUREAU OF THE CENSUS 



8 49 . 4 



131.5 
I 31 .8 
30.8 



| 21 . 1 




25.3 



43 . 3 



By Location 



ti 



U.S. TOTAL 
INSIDE SMSA'S 
OUTSIDE SMSA'S 



52 . 1 



10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 

PERCENT OF HOUSEHOLDS 



60 



INDICATORS OF NEIGHBORHOOD QUALITY 



41 



Most Residents Rank 
Their Neighborhoods 
'Excellent' or 'Good' 

More than four-fifths of 
all U.S. households con- 
sidered the condition of 
their neighborhood as 
either excellent or good. 
Fifty -seven percent of 
black households gave 
their neighborhoods the 
same ratings. A small 



proportion of households 
considered their neighbor- 
hoods in poor condition— 
3 percent of total house- 
holds and 9 percent of 
black households. Overall 
neighborhood ratings were 
slightly higher outside of 
large metropolitan areas 
than within them. 



60 
55 
50 
45 
40 
35 
30 
25 
20 
15 
10 
5 




PERCENT OF HOUSEHOLDS 



Households' Overall Ratings of Neighborhoods: 1974 



36.6 



14.7 



45.5 



4 2.6 




33.8 



15. 1 




BY RACE 

TOTAL HOUSEHOLDS 
BLACK HOUSEHOLDS 



8.9 



2.9 




EXCELLENT 



GOOD 



FAIR 



POOR 



BY LOCATION 

I U.S. TOTAL 
INSIDE SMSA'S 
OUTSIDE SMSA'S 



c 


I 


5 

i 


10 

I 


15 
1 


20 

i 


25 

1 


30 

1 


3! 

1 






40 

i 


45 
1 


50 

i 


55 
1 


6( 






I 


1 i 


1 


1 


1 


i 


1 i 


1 
1 








36.6 


EXCELLENT 




2 


5.5 






39.0 


























45.5 


GOOD 




44 


.8 






47.0 












1 


1 


1 i 










15. 1 


1 i 


FAIR 




16.3 






12.3 










l 


i 






2.9 


POOR 


|3.4 
|1 . 7 






I 


I 






i 


1 


1 


t 








1 




i 


1 





10 



15 



20 25 30 35 40 45 

PERCENT OF HOUSEHOLDS 



50 55 60 



SOURCE BUREAU OF THE CENSUS 



map of 
the month 



42 



INTRODUCTION 



The centerfold which follows 
contains a map designed to 
identify geographic areas 
of special concern. A major 
purpose of the map is to 
show its potential as an 
analytical tool. By present- 
ing two variables in con- 
trasting colors on a single 
map, a graphic portrayal of 
the spatial relationships 
existing between them can 
be shown. The map was 
created by combining or 
"crossing" two single vari- 
able maps. Small versions 
of each variable map are 
shown on page 43. The red 
and yellow map presents 
information on overcrowding. 
The blue and yellow map 
presents information on a 
4-year period of male 
deaths (ages 35-74) 
from cardiovascular disease 
expressed in rates per 
100,000 males. 

When examining the two- 
variable centerfold map. 



interrelations can be dis- 
cerned. If the geographic 
relationships were random, 
the resulting map would 
show no particular tendency 
toward an areal concentra- 
tion of similar colors, but 
instead would exhibit a 
patchwork of small con- 
trasting color blocks 
throughout the country. 

Examination of the map 
shows that there is, indeed, 
a geographic variation in 
the distribution of male 
cardiovascular mortality 
and overcrowded housing. 
The 16 individual colors 
which make up the map (each 
representing a particular 
combination of the two 
variables) appear to be 
concentrated in sizable 
groups of contiguous counties. 

The color spectrum 
selected to differentiate 
overcrowded housing and 
high death rate variables, 
uses greens and blues 
to identify these areas. 
Among these relatively 
"overcrowded" areas, those 
in red, purple, and violet 
represent those counties 



with relatively low death 
rates of males from 
cardiovascular disease. The 
overcrowded areas represented 
by dark blues and purples 
indicate that the death 
rates of males from cardio- 
vascular disease are also 
high. Essentially, these are 
the counties where high 
concentrations of over- 
crowded housing and higher 
than normal death rates of 
males from cardiovascular 
diseases converge. 
The counties which are 
characterized by both the 
lack of overcrowding and 
relatively low death rates 
of males from cardiovascular 
diseases are represented by 
yellow, orange, bright blue, 
and light green. 

When examining the two- 
variable map, no direct 
association between crowding 
and cardiovascular mortality 
appears. Among the four 
large areas of interest is 
the area from North Carolina 
southward along the Atlantic 
coast and then west to 



Louisiana (colored dark 
blues and purples) and con- 
taining counties high for 
both crowding and mortality. 
Counties low for both vari- 
ables (those colored yellow) 
can be seen in the Midwest. 
In the Northeast, from 
Massachusetts to Illinois, 
is a group (mostly green) 
which has no overcrowding 
and high mortality. 
Finally, counties from 
southwest Texas to Utah 
(colored red and violet) 
have low mortality and 
high overcrowding. 



45 




PERCENT 



*V <o <o jvV 



CO 

UJ O 

I- co 938.52 - 2309.96 

<tr 
LU 

01 ^ 827.79 - 938.51 

£ °. 

*~L o 718.95 - 827.78 

< ° 

718.94 



/ / / 

O "> <b 
O- <b- %>■ 



44 



45 



Convergence 

of Male Cardiovascular 

Disease Mortality and 

Percent With 1.01 or 

More Persons Per Room, 

1968-1971 







46 CRIME INDEX TRENDS 



Rise in Total Crime 
Rate Slows to 4%; 
Larcenies Up 14% 

While violent crime decreased 
sharply during the first 
3 months of this year, the 
total crime rate for the 
Nation rose 4 percent. The 
increase was considerably 
lower than the 18-percent 
rise reported for the first 
quarter of last year. 



A 14-percent surge in 
larcenies— the only category 
besides rape to show an in- 
crease—was largely respons- 
ible for the continuing 
climb. 

Murder, robbery, aggra- 
vated assault, burglary, and 
motor vehicle theft all 
showed declines in the 
first quarter. 



20 



PERCENT CHANGE, FIRST QUARTER EACH YEAR OVER PREVIOUS YEAR 



10 -- 



-10 



13.0 



4.0 



1970 



1971 



15.0 



I I 

-1.0 



-3.0 



1972 



1973 



1974 



18.0 



4.0 



Total Crime Index 



1975 



1976 



30 



20 -- 



10 -- 



-10 



VIOLENT CRIME. 
TOTAL 



18.0 



16.0 



JU - 














7.0 


























- 




18.0 




1.0 

r 


28.0 






1974 
1975 

1976 


20- 






4.0 








10 - 


10.0 










10.0 






7.0 








7.0 














4.Q 














1.1J 


u - 










1 

-11.0 






II 


I I 

-3.0 


- 


10 J 

on _ 


-7.0 
















L 

-10 














Violent Crime 



MURDER 



FORCIBLE RAPE 



ROBBERY AGGRAVATED 

ASSAULT 



20.0 

I 



15.0 



5.0 



19.0 19.0 



14.0 



5.0 



1974 
1975 

1976 



6.0 



-3.0 



-7.0 



BURGLARY 
SOURCE F ERAL BUREAU OF INVESTIGATION 



PROPERTY CRIME. 
TOTAL 



LARCENY-THEFT 



MOTOR VEHICLE 
THEFT 



Property Crime 






CRIME INDEX TRENDS 

Violent Crime Down 
in First Quarter- 
Property Crime Up 

The total crime rate rose 
in all four geographic 
regions in the first quar- 
ter of 1976, with the 
greatest increase reported 
for the northern States. 
Property crime grew in 
every region during the 
quarter, while violent 



47 



crime decreased in all but 
the western states. The 
South reported the largest 
drop in violent crime— 
a 13-percent decline. 

Violent crime fell 7 percent 
in cities with populations 
over 25,000, and 8 percent 
in both suburban and rural 
areas. Robbery and murder 
rates showed the largest 
declines. Property crime 



rose in all areas, with 
greatest increases reported 
for the larceny-theft 
category. 



Percent Change 

in Reported Serious Crime 

By Geographic Region 



20 



PERCENTCHANGE 1976 OVER 1975 



15-- 



10 



5-| 



-5 -- 



-10-- 



-15-- 



-20 



9.0 



:^0 



6.0 



-5.0 



-10.0 



4.0 



VIOLENT CRIME 
PROPERTY CRIME 



3.0 



-13.0 



NORTHEASTERN 
STATES 



NORTH CENTRAL SOUTHERN STATES WESTERN STATES 

STATES 



By Type of Area 




CITIES OVER 25,000 
POPULATION 



SUBURBAN 



RURAL 



SOURCE FEDERAL BUREAU OF INVESTIGATION 



48 INMATES OF STATE CORRECTIONAL FACILITIES 



Two-Thirds of State 
Prisoners Between 
20 and 34 Years Old 

Males constituted an over- 
whelming majority of all 
inmates under the jurisdic- 
tion of State correctional 
authorities, with females 
accounting for about 3 
percent of the total. 

White inmates outnum- 
bered black inmates, 51 to 47 



percent. Other racial 
groups, mainly American 
Indians and Orientals, ac- 
counted for about 2 percent. 

Two-thirds of all 
prisoners were aged 20 to 
34, while the largest por- 
tion of prisoners was in 
the age group 20 to 24. 

Sixty-one percent of 
sentenced prisoners had 
never received a high 
school diploma. 



Most State Inmates 
List Occupations as 
Operatives, Craftsmen 

About 69 percent of the 
prisoners had worked most 
recently as nonfarm labor- 
ers, operatives, or crafts- 
men and kindred workers. 

Eight percent of the 
inmates had held their most 
recent job for 5 years or 
more, while 10 percent had 



stayed less than 1 month. 

Note: Data are for the 
year prior to arrest for 
the present offense and were 
collected only for those 
inmates— both sentenced and 
unsentenced— who had held a 
full-time job after December 
1968 or who had been employ- 
ed during most of the month 
prior to their arrest. 



Selected Characteristics of Inmates of State Correctional Facilities: 1974 



uu - 






SEX 

(PERCENT) 






97 


80^ 








- 


80- 








- 


40- 








- 


20- 
n - 






3 
1 1 


- 



100 



80 -- 



60-- 



40 -- 



20 -- 



MALE 



FEMALE 



uu - 






RACE 










(PERCENT) 




80- 








- 


60- 




5 1 


47 


- 


40- 












- 


20- 

n _ 










2 


- 



WHITE BLACK OTHER 




PROFESSIONAL AND 
TECHNICAL WORKERS 

MANAGERS AND 
ADMINISTRATION 

SALESWORKERS 



CLERICAL WORKERS 

CRAFTSMEN AND 
KINDRED WORKERS 

OPERATIVES 

NONFARM LABORERS 

FARM LABORERS 
AND SUPERVISORS 

SERVICE WORKERS 



~i 1 1 r 

OCCUPATION AT TIME 
OF ARREST 



| 23 

J29 



1 1 



OTHERS |2 
NOT REPORTED I 1 







20 



40 60 

PERCENT 



80 



100 



UNDER 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-49 50 

20 AND 

OVER 



LEVEL OF EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT 
(PERCENT) 



35 



26 



28 



. I rn 



1 



EIGHTH 


1-3 


4 


GRADE 


YEARS 


YEARS 


OR LESS 


OF 


OF 




HIGH 


HIGH 



SCHOOL SCHOOL 



1-3 4 NOT 

YEARS YEARS REPORTED 

OF OR MORE 

COLLEGE OF 

COLLEGE 



LESS THAN 
5WEEKS 




i i i i 

LENGTH OF TIME 
ON LAST JOB 

10 


5-26 
WEEKS 




36 








27-104 

WEEKS 




ii 








105-260 
WEEKS 




13 

8 

i 




261 OR 
MORE WEEKS 


n 


i i i 



20 



40 60 80 

PERCENT 



100 



SOURCE LAW ENFORCEMENT ASSISTANCE ADMINISTRATION 



INMATES OF STATE CORRECTIONAL FACILITIES 



49 



Alcohol Plays Role 
in Offenses of 43% of 
State Prison Inmates 

An estimated 43 percent of 
all inmates reported that 
they had been drinking al- 
coholic beverages at the 
time of their offenses. 
About 10 percent had been 
drinking beer only ; 4 per- 
cent, wine only; 17 percent, 
liquor only; and 12 percent, 



some combination of these 
beverages. 

Sixty-one percent of all 
inmates had used illicit 
drugs sometime during their 
lifetime. Marijuana was the 
most prevalent at 92 per- 
cent, but hard drugs such as 
heroin and cocaine also had 
high rankings. The detail 
exceeds the total shown be- 
cause inmates may have used 
more than one drug. 



Robbery, Burglary, 
Homicide Total 59% 
of State Convictions 

Three criminal offenses- 
homicide, burglary, and 
robbery— accounted for three- 
fifths of the convictions 
that led to imprisonments 
of sentenced inmates held 
in custody of State correc- 
tional authorities as of 
January 1974. Prisoners 



sentenced for robbery were 
the most numerous, making 
up 23 percent of all sen- 
tenced inmates. 

Many repeat offenders 
tended to commit the same 
offense more than once. An 
estimated 53 percent of the 
inmates who had received 
more than one sentence had 
been sentenced at least 
twice to serve time for the 
same offense. 



Selected Characteristics of Inmates of State Correctional Facilities: 1974 



DRINKING ATTIME 
OF OFFENSE 



BEER ONLY H] 10 



Alcohol Consumption of Inmates 
at Time of Present Offense 



— 



43 



WINE ONLY 

LIQUOR ONLY 

BEER AND WINE 

BEER AND LIQUOR 

WINE AND LIQUOR 

BEER, WINE 
AND LIQUOR 



NOT DRINKING AT 
TIME OF OFFENSE 



DON'T KNOW AND 
NOT REPORTED 




56 



Type of Drug Ever Used 



METHADONE 



COCAINE 



BARBITURATES 



AMPHETAMINES 



HEROIN 



MARIJUANA 



OTHER 



45 
I 



J 



46 



Drug Usage 

61 

39 



USED NEVER 
USED 



48 



I] 



50 



92 



27 



20 



40 



~r~ 

60 



80 



Most Serious Offense of Sentenced inmates 



ROBBERY 



BURGLARY 



HOMICIDE 



DRUG OFFENSE 



|23 



LARCENY 



ASSAULT 



SEXUAL ASSAULT 



FORGERY, FRAUD 
OR EMBEZZLEMENT 



OTHER 




RECEIVED ONLY ONE 
SENTENCE 



RECEIVED MORE THAN 
ONE SENTENCE 



SENTENCED MORE THAN 

ONCE, BUT NEVER FOR 

THE SAME OFFENSE 

SENTENCED TWICE FOR 
THE SAME OFFENSE 

THREE TIMES 



FOUR TIMES 
FIVE OR MORETIMES 



Correctional Background 



: 



29 



71 



18 



22 



15 



I 



100 



I 
20 



40 



~l — 
60 



80 



100 



PERCENT 



PERCENT 



SOURCE LAW ENFORCEMENT ASSISTANCE ADMINISTRATION 



50 TRANSPORTATION TRENDS 



Transporation-Related 
Accidents Up in 1975; 
Fatalities Drop 1.2% 

While the number of trans- 
portation-related accidents 
increased 3.1 percent in 
1975, the number of fatal- 
ities associated with trans- 
portation accidents dropped 
1.2 percent in 1974. This 
fatality decline continued 
a trend begun in 1973. 



A large share of trans- 
portation-related accidents, 
fatalities, and injuries 
has traditionally involved 
the highway and traffic 
mode of transportation. 
In 1975, for example, 92.5 
percent of the 49,379 trans- 
portation fatalities was 
attributed to highways and 
traffic. 

The 1975 highway and 
traffic fatality total of 



45,674 represents a drama- 
tic 17.1-percent drop from 
the 1973 figure of 55,069. 

Even though the number 
of vehicle-miles driven has 
steadily increased, the 
fatality rate has continued 
to fall, from 4.2 per 100 
million vehicle-miles in 
1973 to 3.6 in 1974 and 3.5 
in 1975. 

The Department of Trans- 
portation says the decline 



"clearly demonstrates the 
life-saving value of the 
Nation's highway traffic- 
safety programs and reduced 
speed, combined with im- 
proved driver habits such 
as the use of available 
seat belts and precautions 
against alcohol abuse. 
Credit must also be given 
to the improved highway 
systems." 



20 



15 



10 



MILLIONS 



THOUSANDS 



I 

Transportation 






































































h i 


* 


— , .__ 


.. i_ .. 





1965 1967 



1969 



1971 



1973 



60 

58 

56 

54 

52 

50 

48 

46 

44 

42 

40 
1975 1965 



I 

Transportation ^^ 






Fatalities 
















































































» 


i 


*— 


L-_ . 4_ - . 


_ i_. _. 



1967 



1969 



1971 



1973 1975 



Transportation Fatalities, 






______ GENERAL AVIATION 


by Type 1975 






1,324 

^^^ ~ — — — _ RECREATIONAL 
^~^\^^ BOATING 1,482 

"~~~\^^ ~"~*"~ RAIL 564 




X^k -—""•* 




^~"~-~- OTHER: 




_. y 




WATERBORNE 


PEDESTRIAN 7,628 ' 


/ \ / 


/ iff/ 

1 / // / *» 

/ iff/ 

1 III 


\ TRANSPORT 190 
\ AIR CARRIER 124 




__l \. 

/ / \ 

r--~--. ' ^v 


I If / 

1 if / *> 

I It 1 


\ PIPELINE 21 




PEDALCYCLIST 1,023 ~ . 


Iff / 

¥/ » 
"/ * 






—~— -~. ^\ 


/ \ 


\ TOTAL FATALITIES 




4 


i 
i 


49,379 




\ \ i 




MOTOR 


\ ^ ' 

V \ / 




VEHICLE OCCUPANT — -~ 


\ \ HIGHWAY / 


/ TRANSPORTATION 


AND OTHER 33,914 


Y ACCIDENTS 1965 1974 1975 








\ S v AND y/ / 


Millions 




\ ^-.^ TRAFFIC ^* / 


Total 13.22 15.63 16.12 




\ TOTAL / 


TRANSPORTATION 




\ 45,674 


FATALITIES Thousands 








Total 51.74 49.99 49.38 



SOURCE DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION 



TRANSPORTATION TRENDS 



51 



Gasoline Consumption 
Grows Through April, 
Tops '73'75 Period 

During the first 4 months 
of this year average daily 
gasoline consumption was 
higher than in the compara- 
ble period for the previous 
3 years. 

Motor gasoline consump- 
tion for April 1976 was 
6.2 percent higher than 



April 1975 and 6.7 percent 
higher than April 1974* 
February and March 
1976 showed changes 
of 7.2 percent and 10.1 
percent, respectively, over 
the same months last year. 

Based on reports from 
all States and the District 
of Columbia, motor gasoline 
consumption in 1975 was 
2.4 percent higher than in 



1974, but still 1.4 percent 
below the average for 1973. 

NOTE: Motor gasoline con- 
sumption is a sum of gross 
gallons of motor gasoline 
reported in each State 
from State taxation reports 
at the wholesale level. 
There are time lags of up 
to 6 weeks between whole- 
sale and retail sales. 
The data include highway 



use, nonhighway use, and 
losses. Large monthly 
changes sometimes result 
from delays in processing 
reports from a few large 
distributors, exceptional 
weather conditions, or 
variations in the timing 
of holidays. 

'Total U.S. consumption 
estimate is based on re- 
ports from 30 States. 



MILLIONSOF BARRELS PER DAY 




JUNE 



JULY 



U.S. DAILY AVERAGE MOTOR 
GASOLINE CONSUMPTION 



MARCH JUNE SEPT. 



DEC. 



1973 
1974 
1975 
1976 

NA Not available. 



Millions of Barrels Per Day 
6.5 7.2 7.1 6.7 

5.9 7.1 6.7 6.7 

6.2 7.2 6.8 6.9 

6.8 NA NA NA 



SOURCE DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION 



52 PUBLIC SCHOOL SYSTEMS 



120 



100 



80 



60 



40 



20 



Total School Systems 
Decline Sharply From 
117,000 to 16,300 

Since 1944 the number of 
local public school systems 
in the U.S. has declined 
dramatically from more 
than 100,000 to 16,300 
in 1976. 

School system reorgani- 
zation, consolidation of 
small systems, and 

THOUSANDS OF SCHOOL SYSTEMS 



elimination of nonoperating 
systems are the reasons 
for the significant drop. 

The most rapid reduction 
occurred between 1947-48 
and 1959-60 when the number 
of school systems dropped 
57 percent. The rate of 
decline has slowed since 
the 1960's. In the past 
4 years, the reduction has 
been less than 1 ,000 systems. 



In 1 975 there was a strong 
concentration of pupils in 
the large and middle-size 
school systems. More than 
four-fifths of the pupils 
were in the 3,900 systems 
with enrollments of 2,500 



or more pupils. The 
average enrollment for all 
school systems in the 
country was about 2,700 
pupils. 



Number of Local Public School Systems 
in the U.S.: 1939-40 to 1975-76 



SCHOOL SYSTEMS 



1939- 1959- 1975- 

1940 1960 1976 



Number of Local Public School Systems 1 17.1 



Thousands 
40.5 



16.3 



1939-40 1943-44 



1947-48 



1951-52 



1955-56 



1959-60 



1963-64 1967-68 



1971 72 1975-76 



Percent Distribution of 

Public School Systems and Pupils, 

by Size of System: Fall 1975 



ENROLLMENTSIZE 

SO* to 599 
600 to 2,499 
2,500 to 9,999 
10,000 or more 



"Systems not operating schools 

10 

SOURCE -.ATIONAL CENTER FOR EDUCATION STATISTICS 




Section III 



economy 



53 



Gross National Product 

Gross National Product 54 

Inflation Rate 54 

GNP Components 54 

Quarter-to-Quarter Change 
in Gross National Product 55 

Quarter-to-Quarter Change 
in Final Sales 55 

Quarter-to-Quarter Change 
in Inventory Investment 55 

Industrial Production 

Industrial Production 
Index, Total 56 

By Major Industry 
Groupings 56 

By Major Market 
Groupings 56 

Selected Market Groupings- 
Final Products 56 

Manufacturing & Trade- 
Sales & Inventories 

Manufacturing and 
Trade Sales 57 

Manufacturing and 
Trade Inventories 57 

Inventory /Sales Ratios 57 

Advance Report on Manufac- 
turers' Durable Goods 

Advance Report on Manufac- 
turers' Durable Goods 58 

New Orders— Selected 
Industries 58 

Shipments— Selected 
Industries 58 



Advance Retail Sales— June 

Retail Sales— June Advance 
Estimates 59 

Selected Durable Goods 59 

Selected Nondurable Goods 59 

Retail Sales, by SMSA 59 

Housing Starts & Permits 

New Private Housing 
Units Started 60 

Housing Starts, by 
Region 60 

New Private Housing 
Units Authorized 60 

Housing Authorizations, 
by Region 60 

New Home Sales 

Sales of New One-Family 
Homes 61 

Length of Time on Market 61 

Value of New Construction 

Value of New Construction 
Work Done 62 

Private Residential 
Construction 62 

Private Nonresidential 
Construction 62 

Exports & Imports 

Merchandise Trade 
Balance 63 

Exports 63 

Imports 63 

Consumer Price Index- 
International Comparisons 

Consumer Prices: Inter- 
national Comparisons 64 



Consumer Price Index 

Consumer Price Index, 
All Items 65 

Consumer Price Index, All 
Items, Percent Change From 
a Year Ago 65 

Services Group 65 

Commodities Less Food 
Group 65 

Food Group 65 

Wholesale Price Index 

All Commodities, Total 66 

All Commodities, Total 
Percent Change over 3-Month 
Span 66 

Farm Products 66 

Processed Foods and 
Feeds 66 

Industrial Commodities 66 

Agricultural Prices 

Ratio of Prices Received 
to Prices Paid 67 

Selected Prices Received 67 

Selected Prices Paid 67 

Capacity Utilization 

Capacity Utilization in 
Manufacturing 68 

Durable Goods Manufacturing 68 

Nondurable Goods Manufac- 
turing 68 

New Plant & Equipment 
Expenditures 

New Plant and Equipment 
Expenditures 69 

Components of Nonmanu- 
facturing 69 

Components of Manufac- 
turing 69 



Consumer Installment 
Credit 

Consumer Installment 
Credit 70 

Net Change in Consumer 
Installment Credit Out- 
standing: May 1976 70 

Net Public & Private Debt 

Total Net Public and 
Private Debt: 1916-1975 71 

Components of Total Net 
Debt: 1916-1975 71 

Distribution of Total Net 
Public and Private Debt: 
Selected Years 71 

Interest Rates 

Long-Term Interest Rates 72 

Effective Conventional 
Mortgage Interest Rates 72 

Short-Term Interest 
Rates 72 






54 GROSS NATIONAL PRODUCT 



2nd Quarter "Real" 
GNP Growth Rate Slows 
to Half of 1st Quarter 

In the second quarter of 
1976, "real" Gross National 
Product— the Nation's total 
output of goods and services 
adjusted to cancel the 
effects of inflation— rose 
at a 4.4-percent annual rate, 
less than half of the 9.2 
percent pace of the first 



quarter of the year. 

Output in current dollars 
increased S36.8 billion or 
at an annual rate of 9.3 
percent in the second quar- 
ter, down from the 12.6- 
percent annual rate increase 
of $48 billion in the first 
quarter. 

Prices, as measured by 
the more comprehensive GNP 
chain price index, edged up- 
ward 0.7 percent to a 5 



percent annual rate. In 
constant 1972 dollars, 
personal consumption ex- 
penditures increased $8 
billion to an annual level 
of $808.7 billion, compared 
to a $16.8 billion in the 
first quarter. 

Gross private domestic 
investment increased $3.4 
billion. The reduced growth 
in this sector largely re- 
sulted from a sharply reduced 



rate of inventory accumu- 
lation after last quarter's 
large gain. 

Net exports of goods and 
services declined to $15.8 
billion, the lowest annual 
rate recorded since the 
third quarter of 1974. 
Government purchases of 
goods and services rose $2.7 
billion, recouping most of 
the first quarter decline. 



BILLIONSOF DOLLARS 




900 



800 



700 



BILLIONSOF 1972 DOLLARS 




600 



500 



400' 



300 



200 



100- 



-100-1 — ' — i 



PERSONAL CONSUMPTION 
EXPENDITURES 



GOVERNMENT PURCHASES OF 
GOODS AND SERVICES 




GROSS PRIVATE. 
-DOMESTIC INVESTMENT 



NET EXPORTS OF GOODS 
I ANDSERVICES 



_l 1 1_ 



_l I 1 L J 1 1_ 



1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 



1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 





PERCENT CHANGE, ANNUAL RATES 
















Inflatic 


tn Rate 




















1 




















" 










| 






















t 




.1 


















1 






I 






















. 







2ND 




1ST 


2ND 




QTR. 




QTR. 


QTR. 


GROSS NATIONAL PRODUCT* 


1975 




1976 


1976 






Bill 


ions of Dollars 




Current Dollars 


1,482.3 




1,636.2 


1,673.0 


Constant 1972 Dollars 


1,177.1 




1,246.3 


1,259.7 


Personal Consumption 










Expenditures 


767.5 




800.7 


808.7 


Government Purchases of Goods 










and Services 


259.1 




261.9 


264.6 


Gross Private Domestic 










Investment 


126.2 




167.1 


170.5 


Net Exports of Goods and 










Services 


24.3 




16.6 


15.8 




Percent Change, Annual Rates 






Inflation Rate (Chain Price Index) 



5.4 



4.3 



5.0 



1971 1972 1973 1974 

SOURCE BUREAU OF ECONOMIC ANALYSIS 



1975 1976 



"Data revisions since the first quarter of 1976 reflect the annual revision each July for the 
three preceding years to incorporate source data not available when previous estimates 
were made. 



GROSS NATIONAL PRODUCT 



55 



Inventory Investment 
Declines; Final Sales 
Increase Moderately 

The $13.4 billion increase 
in real GNP in the second 
quarter was modest 
This is the fifth con- 
secutive quarterly increase 
and still 8.5 percent above 
the low point recorded in 
the first quarter of 1975. 



In contrast to the prior 
quarter gain of $1 5.9 bil- 
lion to an annual rate of 
$10.4 billion, inventory 
accumulation declined to a 
$9.5 billion annual rate in 
the second quarter. 

Real final sales— the 
portion of GNP sold to 
ultimate users— increased 
$14.3 billion, as businessmen 



have sold off stocks faster 
than they have built up in- 
ventories in two out of the 
last three quarters. 





BILLIONS OF 1972 DOLLARS 














































4U ~ 

20 J 


....E 
























































































U M 

20- 

ah _ 








U 




























_ 








Quarter-to-Quarter Change in 
Gross National Product 



1971 



1972 



1973 



1974 



1975 



1976 



40 



-20- 



-40 





























































^ u 






"d 



















Quarter-to-Quarter Change 
in Final Sales 



1971 



1972 



1973 



1974 



1975 



1976 



40 



20- 






■20- 



40 



Quarter-to-Quarter Change 
in Inventory Investment 






1971 1972 1973 

SOURCE BUREAU OF ECONOMIC ANALYSIS 



1974 



1975 



1976 



56 INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION 



June Production Index Up 
0.3% Over May; 2d- Quarter 
Gain Slows 

The total industrial produc- 
tion index rose an estimated 
0.3 percent in June follow- 
ing a 0.7-percent increase 
in May. The June index of 
129.9 was about 16 percent 
above the March 1975 low of 
111.7 and about 1 .5 percent 
below the June 1974 high of 



131.9. Output rose an 
estimated 1.4 percent in 
the second quarter of 1976, 
compared to a first-quarter 
gain of 3 percent. The May 
and June levels were reduced 
by approximately 0.2 percent 
as a result of the rubber 
strike. 

The mining and utilities 
index, which has shown 
little change since January, 
was estimated at 131.5 in 



June. Manufacturing rose 
0.5 percent to 129.7. 

The total products index 
rose more slowly in June. 
Final products rose 0.3 per- 
cent to 127.2, and the inter- 
mediate products index was 
unchanged at 135.4. The 
materials index increased 
0.4 percent to 131.4, re- 
flecting continued gains in 
output of durable materials. 



The consumer goods in- 
dex edged up 0.2 percent 
in June for a total second- 
quarter increase of 0.4 
percent. This compares to 
a first-quarter gain of 
2.9 percent. Business 
equipment rose 0.6 percent 
in June for a total gain 
of 1.9 percent in the 
second quarter. Output is 
still 6.8 percent below 
the September 1974 peak. 



INDEX 1967=100 



150 



140 



130 



120 



1 10 



1 00 ' '■■'■■■ ■ 




150 



140 



130 



120 



1 10 



NOTE : A general revision 
of the industrial produc- 
tion index was announced 
by the Federal Reserve Board 
on June 28. The data on 
this page reflect the 
changes. The revision will 
be described in the June 
Federal Rexrve Bulletin, 
and a complete series of 
revised data will be pub- 
lished in late fall in 
Industrial Production, 
1976 edition. 



1971 

INDEX 1967=100 



1972 



1973 



1974 




1 00 ' 

1973 



1974 



1975 



1976 





JUNE 


MAY 


JUNE 


INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION 


1975 


1976 


1976 






Index, 1967=100 




Total 


116.4 


129.5 


129.9 


Industry 








Manufacturing 


114.6 


129.0 


129.7 


Mining and Utilities 


129.7 


131.6 


131.5 


Major Market Groupings 








Products, Total 


118.8 


128.7 


129.0 


Final Products 


118.2 


126.8 


127.2 


Consumer Goods 


124.3 


136.3 


136.6 


Equipment 


109.8 


113.8 


114.4 


Business Equipment 


126.6 


135.8 


136.6 


Intermediate Products 


120.8 


135.4 


135.4 


Materials 


112.6 


130.9 


131.4 



150 



140 



130 



120 



1 10 



100 



150 



140 



130 



120 



1 10 



100 



1975 1976 

INDEX 1967=100 




1973 

INDEX 1967=100 



1974 



1975 



1976 




Selected Market Groupings - 
Final Products 



1973 



1974 



1975 



1976 



SOURCE BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE BOARD 



MANUFACTURING & TRADE-SALES & INVENTORIES 



57 



Sales Drop in May; 
Inventories Continue 
'76 Expansion Trend 

Total manufacturing and 
trade sales declined for 
the first time since last 
November. May sales were 
valued at $186.4 billion, 
down $651 million from the 
April peak. A $663 million 
increase in manufacturers' 
sales was offset by declines 



in retail and wholesale 
sales. Retail sales fell 
$1.1 billion and wholesale 
sales edged down $179 
million. Combined sales 
for May were 14 percent 
above May 1975. 

Total manufacturing and 
trade inventories continued 
to expand in May. Stocks 
rose $1.9 billion (0.7 
percent) the largest gain 
since December 1974, to a 



new high of $272.5 billion. 
This follows an upward- 
revised $962 million gain 
in April. Manufacturers' 
inventories, which rose 
$1 .0 billion, accounted 
for 54 percent of the rise. 
Wholesale inventories were 
up $829 million, and retail 
inventories were basically 
unchanged at $75.7 billion. 

Combined inventories 
were equal to 1 .46 months 



of sales at the May rate. 
The manufacturing inven- 
tory-to-sales ratio was 
unchanged at 1.58 as in- 
ventory accumulation kept 
pace with sales gains. 
Reflecting declines in 
sales, the retail and 
wholesale ratios rose to 
1 .44 and 1 .21 , respectively. 



BILLIONS OF DOLLARS 



1 I r 

Manufacturing and Trade Sales 



TOTAL, MANUFACTURING- 
AND TRADE 




300 



250 



200 



150 



BILLIONS OF DOLLARS 




100 H 



1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 

SOURCE BUREAU OF ECONOMIC ANALYSIS 



197 1 



1972 



1973 



1974 



1975 



1976 



MANUFACTURING & TRADE SALES 


MAY 


APRIL 


MAY 


AND INVENTORIES 


1975 


1976 


1976 






Billions of Dollars 




SALES 








Manufacturing and Trade, Total 


163.3 


187.1 


186.4 


Manufacturing 


79.7 


93.8 


94.5 


Retail Trade 


48.2 


53.7 


52.6 


Wholesale Trade 


35.4 


39.5 


39.4 


INVENTORIES 








Manufacturing and Trade, Total 


264.3 


270.6 


272.5 


Manufacturing 


149.0 


148.1 


149.2 


Retail Trade 


70.8 


75.7 


75.7 


Wholesale Trade 


44.6 


46.8 
Ratio 


47.7 


INVENTORY-TO-SALES RATIOS 








Manufacturing and Trade, Total 


1.62 


1.45 


1.46 


Manufacturing 


1.87 


1.58 


1.58 


Retail Trade 


1.47 


1.41 


1.44 


Wholesale Trade 


1.26 


1.19 


1.21 



58 ADVANCE REPORT ON MANUFACTURERS' DURABLE GOODS-^JUNE 



June Durable Goods 
Orders Up Slightly; 
Shipments Also Gain 

New orders for durable 
goods rose $716 million 
(1.4 percent) to $50.4 bil- 
lion in June, according to 
preliminary data. This is 
less than half the May gain 
of $1.8 billion. 

A sharp $1.2-billion 
(10.2 percent) rise in new 



orders for transportation 
equipment paced the June 
advance. A $745 million 
decrease in new orders for 
primary metals was partially 
offsetting. New orders for 
durable goods— excluding 
transportation equipment 
industries— declined $444 
million, 1.2 percent. 
Total new orders for durable 
goods have climbed 28.3 
percent since June 1975. 



3hipments by durable goods 
industries rose $497 million 
(1 percent) to another new 
high of $48.8 billion. 
Shipments of transportation 
equipment, which rose $754 
million (6.6 percent), posted 
the largest gain. A $315- 
million decline in machinery 
shipments was partially off- 
setting. Durable shipments 
were up 19.8 percent from 
last June. 



The June rise in new or- 
ders continued to outpace 
the increase in shipments 
resulting in a $1.6 billion 
rise in the backlog of un- 
filled orders. This is the 
largest gain since the $1 .7- 
billion increase reported 
in September 1974. 



BILLIONS Of DOLLARS 



130 - — 



10 



1 I I 

Advance Report on Manufacturers' 
Durable Goods— June 




/ 




NEWORDERS 



NEWORDERS EXCLUDING 
TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT 



lililltlAlll U.i.1.1 



1971 1972 1973 

SOURCE BUREAU OF THE CENSUS 



1974 



1975 



1976 



16 

14 

12 

10 

8 

6 

4 

2 





16 

14 

12 

10 

8 

6 

4 

2 





BILLIONS OF DOLLARS 



1 1 1 

New Orders— Selected Industries 












/ 


TRANSPOR I M I iuim 
EQUIPMENT 

1 k I 








A 


J^ 


^*jr-**\ 


'VWj 


y^ 


▼ 


r—r^ 




V^-/1 


J \ 


w- 


f/ 


-^J 


' 


r 




vC 










\ 

PRIMARY METALS 


• ' ' ■ ' 


■ i i i i i ■ ■ i i i 


• ' ' ■ » 


■ 1 1 1 1 1 1 ■■ 1 1 







1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 



BILLIONS OF DOLLARS 



Shipments— Selected Industries 
















*T 








MACHINERY 7 






















\ 












\ 


\ TRANSPORTATION 

EQUIPMENT" 
























• 1 1 1 ■ i ■ 1 1 ■ i 



1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 



ADVANCE REPORT ON 
MANUFACTURERS' DURABLE 
GOODS 



New Orders for Durable Goods 

Primary Metal Industries 

Transportation Equipment Industries 
New Orders Excluding Transportation 
Shipments of Durable Goods 

Machinery Industries 

Transportation Equipment Industries 



JUNE 


MAY 


JUNE 


1975 


1976 


1976 




Billions of Dollars 




39.3 


49.7 


50.4 


5.4 


8.8 


8.1 


9.2 


11.4 


12.6 


30.1 


38.3 


37.8 


40.8 


48.3 


48.8 


12.7 


14.3 


14.0 


9.5 


11.4 


12.1 



Unfilled Orders-Durable Goods 



119.1 



115.2 



116.8 



ADVANCE RETAIL SALES-JUNE 



June Retail Sales 
Rebound From May 
Drop; Autos Spurt 

According to advance data, 
total retail sales rose 2.7 
percent ($1.4 billion) in 
June, completely recovering 
from the 2.1 -percent drop 
posted in May. June sales, 
estimated from weekly sales 
reported by a sampling of 
retail outlets, were 

BILLIONS OF DOLLARS 



valued at a new high of 
$54 billion, an increase 
of 11 percent since June 
1975. 

Sales of durable goods 
advanced $645 million 
(3.7 percent) to $17.9 
billion. A $622 million 
rise in automotive sales 
accounted for nearly all of 
the increase. Automotive 
sales, estimated at $10.8 
billion, were 6.1 percent 
above May and 27 




59 



percent above last June. 
Reflecting widespread 
gains, nondurable sales 
rose 2.2 percent, ($788 
million) to $36.1 billion. 
The general merchandise 
group rose $328 million 
(4 percent) to $8.5 billion. 

RETAIL SALES IN SE- 
LECTED SMSA's:* May 

retail sales were generally 
above year-ago levels. 
The New York, N.Y.- 



Nassau-Suffolk, N.Y. area 
reported the only decline 
(3 percent). Largest gains 
were reported by the 
San Francisco-Oakland 
area— 9 percent, the 
Chicago area— 8 percent. 

The Detroit and Los 
Angeles- Long Beach areas 
posted increases of approx- 
imately 6 percent each. 



*Not seasonally adjusted 





JUNE 


MAY 


JUNE 


RETAIL SALES-JUNE ADVANCE 


1975 


1976 


1976 






Billions of Dollars 




Retail Sales, Total 


48.7 


52.6 


54.0 


Sales Excluding Automotive 








Dealers Group, Total 


40.1 


42.4 


43.2 


Durable Goods 


15.0 


17.3 


17.9 


Automotive Dealers, Total 


8.5 


10.2 


10.8 


Nondurable Goods 


33.6 


35.3 


36.1 



General Merchandise Group, Total 



8.0 



8.2 



8.5 



12 
10 
8 
6 
4 
2 




BILLIONS OF DOLLARS 



Selected Durable 
"Goods 




AUTOMOTIVE DEALERS 



1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 



i i i i 1 i i r i . i i i i i i 1 i i i i 1 i 

1974 1975 1976 



12 



BILLIONS OF DOLLARS 



10 — 



Selected Nondurable 
"Goods" 




GENERAL MERCHANDISE 
"GROUP WITH NONSTORES 



■■■''■'■■ ' 



■1,1-1, i J-L.i i I I I 



1974 1975 



1976 



BILLIONS OF DOLLARS 



5-- 



1 -- 



(5-- 



Retail Sales by SMSA 



2.28 



1 .95 



1.81 



1 .82 



1 .72 



0.97 



1 .03 



2.21 



MAY 1975 
MAY 1976 



i.o8 L_U 



0.75 



0.82 



CHICAGO, ILL. DETROIT, MICH. 

SOURCE BUREAU OF THE CENSUS 



LOS ANGELES- 
LONG BEACH, 
CALIF. 



NEW YORK, N.Y.- 
NASSAU-SUFFOLK, 
N.Y. 



PHILADELPHIA, 
PA. 



SAN FRANCISCO- 
OAKLAND, 
CALIF. 



60 HOUSING STARTS & PERMITS 



Private Housing 
Starts Rise in June 
to 1.5 Million Rate 

Privately-owned housing 
units started in June 
rose 4.3 percent to 
a seasonally-adjusted 
annual rate of 1,492,000. 
Starts of single-family 
units were up 83,000 units, 
while starts of units in 



multifamily structures 
declined 21,000 units. 

The South showed the 
greatest unit increase 
(88,000 units), followed 
by the Northeast region's 
increase of 28,000 units. 
The North Central region 
declined sharply, down 
52,000 units to its lowest 
level since January, while 
the West remained rela- 
tively unchanged. 



Authorized Permits 
for Private Housing 
Dips 3.1% in June 

Privately-owned housing 
construction was author- 
ized in June at a season- 
ally adjusted annual rate 
of 1,122,000 in the 14,000 
permit-issuing places, a 
decline of 3.1 percent. 
Permits for single-family 
units rose 27,000 units 



which was more than 
offset by a 63,000-unit 
drop in multifamily units. 

All regions except the 
West reported declines 
with the South and the 
Northeast falling a total 
of 45,000 units. 

Note: Authorization data 
has been revised from 
January 1974 to May 197( 



THOUSANDS OF UNITS 



THOUSANDS OF UNITS 



3.000 



2,500 



2,000 




1,500 



1.000 



3,000 



2,500 



2,000 



1,500 



1,000 



500 



I' m ■''' 



New Private Housing Units Authorized 
(14,000 Permit-Issuing Places) 




1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 



971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 



THOUSANDS OF UNITS 



THOUSANDS OF UNITS 




1 97 1 



1972 



1973 



1974 



1975 



1976 





JUNE 


MAY 


JUNE 


HOUSING STARTS 


1975 


1976 


1976 






Thousands of Units 




TOTAL UNITS STARTED 


1,080 


1.430 


1,492 


Units in Multifamily Structures 


206 


363 


342 


Single-Family Units 


874 


1,067 


1.150 


BY REGION 








Northeast 


129 


145 


173 


North Central 


275 


431 


379 


South 


391 


491 


579 


West 


285 


363 


361 



1971 1972 1973 



HOUSING AUTHORIZATIONS 



1974 

JUNE 
1975 



1975 

MAY 
1976 



1976 

JUNE 
1976 



TOTAL UNITS AUTHORIZED 
Units in Multifamily Structures 
Single-Family Units 

BY REGION 
Northeast 
North Central 
South 
West 



Thousands of Units 

938 1,158 1,122 

271 351 288 

667 807 834 



121 


141 


130 


236 


286 


283 


309 


391 


357 


272 


340 


352 



SOURCE BUREAU OF THE CENSUS 



NEW HOME SALES 

New Home Sales Drop 
18% During May to 
514,000 Annual Rate 

The number of new 
one-family homes sold in 
May 1976 dropped to an 
annual rate of 514,000 units, 
114,000 units lower than the 
April 1976 rate of 628,000 
units. This represents an 
18-percent decrease. 



The inventory of new one- 
family homes available for 
sale has continued to remain 
between 380,000 and 400,000 
units over the last 20 
months. 



Time That New Homes 
Stay on Market Dips 
From Earlier Highs 

During 1971, the median 
number of months homes 
sold and homes for sale 
stayed on the market (as 
measured from month of 
start) was the lowest in 
a decade. During 1972, 
1973, and 1974, the 
length of time increased 



61 

for both categories. For 
homes sold, time on market 
peaked at 5.6 months in 
September 1974 and is 
currently about 3.5 months; 
homes for sale peaked 9 
months later in mid-1975 at 
10.4 months and is now 
about 6.5 months. 



THOUSANDS OF UNITS 



Sales of New One-R 


r 

imily Homes * 






















./\A/' 




, HOMES SOLD (ANNUAL RATE) 




































^^ 


HOMES 


FOR SALE (MONTHLY RA 


D 









































1971 



1972 



1973 



1974 



1975 



1976 



SALES OF NEW 
ONE-FAMILY HOMES 


MAY 
1975 


APRIL 
1976 


MAY 
1976 






Number in Thousands 




Homes Sold During Month 

Annual Rate, Total 
Homes for Sale at End of Month 

Monthly Rate, Total 


554 

381 


628 
390 

Number of Months 


514 
396 



14 



12 



10 



MEDIAN NUMBER OF MONTHS 



Median Number of Months 

From Start to Sale for Homes Sold 5.0 

Median Number of Months 

From Start to End of Month 

For Homes for Sale at End of Month 10.3 



3.5 



6.4 



3.3 



6.6 



Length of Time on Market 







FROM START TO END OF 
MONTH FOR HOMES FOR 
SALE AT END OF MONTH 




A\^PV 



— r 
i 
i 
i 



FROM START TO SALE 
FOR HOMES SOLD 



■■■■■■■■■■ ■ ■■■■■■■■■■■ i ■■■■■■■■ ■ ■ ■ i ■■■■■■■■■■ ■ 



1971 



1972 



1973 



1974 



1975 



1976 



SOURCE BUREAU OF THE CENSUS 



62 VALUE OF NEW CONSTRUCTION 



New Construction Dips 
During May to Annual 
$140 Billion Rate 

In May 1976 the value of 
new construction work done 
(in current dollars) declined 
1.5 percent to an annual 
rate of $140 billion. 

In real terms (expressed 
in constant 1967 dollars) 
new construction activity 
declined for the second 



straight month to $71.2 
billion, 1.9 percent below 
the April level of $72.6 
billion. 

Private construction, 
which comprises almost 
three-quarters of total 
new construction work done, 
declined 1.5 percent; public 
construction dipped 3.2 
percent. 



Industrial, Commercial 
Building Declines 

The overall decrease in 
construction activity was 
a result of declines in both 
private residential and non- 
residential construction 
work done. Residential con- 
struction decreased 2.7 per- 
cent to $29.3 billion; new 
construction on multifamily 
and single-unit structures 



declined 2.9 and 1 percent, 
respectively. 

New construction on non- 
residential buildings dropped 
3.1 percent; construction 
of industrial buildings fell 
8.1 percent, while commer- 
cial buildings declined 
4.7 percent. 

NOTE: Value-in-place esti- 
mates were revised from 
January 1973 to April 1976. 



BILLIONS OF DOLLARS 



BILLIONS OF 1967 DOLLARS 




1971 1972 1973 

SOURCE BUREAU OF THE CENSUS 



1974 



1975 



1976 




1971 



1972 



1973 



1974 



1975 



1976 



BILLIONS OF 1967 DOLLARS 




1971 



1972 



1973 



1974 



1975 



1976 





MAY 


APRIL 


MAY 


VALUE OF NEW CONSTRUCTION 


1975 


1976 


1976 






Billions of Dollars 




CURRENT DOLLARS, TOTAL 


127.1 


142.1 


140.0 


CONSTANT 1967 DOLLARS, TOTAL 


67.4 


72.6 


71.2 


Private Construction 


48.7 


54.0 


53.2 


Residential Buildings 


25.2 


30.1 


29.3 


Single-Family Structures 


18.1 


23.7 


23.4 


Multifamily Structures 


14.1 


20.3 


20.1 


Nonresidential Buildings 


13.2 


12.8 


12.4 


Commercial 


6.3 


6.4 


6.1 


Industrial 


4.2 


3.7 


3.4 


Public Construction 


18.7 


18.6 


18.0 



EXPORTS & IMPORTS 



63 



U.S. Trade Balance Shows 
$395.6 Million Surplus 
During May 

In May, the U.S. trade bal- 
ance recorded a surplus for 
the first time in 5 months, 
with exports exceeding 
imports by $395.6 million. 
As a result, the cumula- 
tive deficit for the year 
dropped from $1 .07 billion 
to $670.8 million. 



Total exports rose for 
the third straight month, 
but the increase of $184 
million, or 2 percent, to 
a record $9.58 billion was 
less than half of April's 
gain of 4.9 percent. The 
increase of $211.6 million 
in nonagricultural exports 
to a record $7.55 billion 
was paced by aircraft and 



parts, up $95.1 million to 
$516.2 million. Agricul- 
tural exports rose $41.8 
million to $1.95 billion. 
Soybean exports, up $73 
million, made the strongest 
contribution to increased 
agricultural exports. Off- 
setting movements occurred 
in grain sorghums and wheat 
exports. 



Total imports declined 
$420 million to $9.18 
billion. A $710 million 
plunge in petroleum imports 
more than offset a $290 
million increase in all 
other imports. 



BILLIONS OF DOLLARS 






MAY 


APRIL 


MAY 


EXPORTS AND IMPORTS 


1975 


1976 


1976 






Billions of Dollars 




MERCHANDISE TRADE BALANCE 


0.955 


-0.202 


0.396 


EXPORTS, TOTAL* 


8.22 


9.39 


9.58 


Domestic Nonagricultural Commodities 


6.69 


7.34 


7.55 


Domestic Agricultural Commodities 


1.51 


1.91 


1.95 


IMPORTS, TOTAL* 


7.27 


9.60 


9.18 


Imports, Excluding Petroleum 


5.37 


6.80 


7.09 


Petroleum Imports 


1.90 


2.80 


2.09 


*Detail may not add to total due to 




seasonal adjustment of individual 








series. 









1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 



BILLIONS OF DOLLARS 



BILLIONS OF DOLLARS 




Q I I t I I I I I I I i i i t i i i i 1 i ■ i t I I.. , . 

1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 




1971 



1972 



1973 



1974 



1975 



1976 



SOURCE BUREAU OF THE CENSUS 



64 CONSUMER PRICE INDEX-INTERNATIONAL COMPARISONS 



UNITED KINGDOM: The 

composite index of 
consumer prices con- 
tinued to rise in May, 
up a fu rther 1 .2 percent 
to 249. This means that 
average prices paid by 
consumers during May 
1976 were Th times the 
average of prices paid 
during 1967. The index 
has climbed 15.3 percent 
since May 1975. 



JAPAN: Consumer prices 
were unchanged in May after 
posting a steep 2.3-percent 
rise in April, the largest 
in a year. Prices have 
risen a total of 8.8 per- 
cent since May a year ago. 
This compares to a 14.5- 
percent advance during the 
May 1974-May 1975 period. 

FRANCE: Continuing its 
uninterrupted climb, the 
consumer price index rose 



1 percent in May to 194. 
Prices are 9.6 percent 
above May 1975. 

CANADA: The consumer 
price index continued to 
rise moderately in May— 
up 0.6 percent to 171. 
Prices have risen a total 
of 8.9 percent since May 
1975, compared to a 9.8- 
percent gain during the 
May 1974-May 1975 period. 



UNITED STATES: In 

the largest increase since 
November 1975, prices 
rose 0.6 percent in May 
compared to an average 
monthly increase of 0.3 
percent during the 
November-April period. 

WEST GERMANY: 
Prices remained stable in 
May at 154, representing 
an increase of 4.8 per- 
cent since May 1975. 



260 



INDEX, 1967=100; NOT SEASONALLY ADJUSTED 



240 



220 



200 



180 



160 



140 



120 



100 




UNITED KINGDOM 



JAPAN 



FRANCE 



CANADA 
UNITED STATES 



WEST GERMANY 



1971 1972 

SOURCE BUREAU OF ECONOMIC ANALYSIS 



1973 



1974 



1975 



1976 



CONSUMER PRICE INDEX 



65 



Second Quarter CPI 
Rises at Double the 
First Quarter Rate 

The consumer price index 
for all items rose a season- 
ally-adjusted 0.5 percent 
in June compared with a 
0.6-percent increase in 
May. The energy group 
(gasoline, motor oil, fuel 
oil, coal, natural gas and 
electricity) accounted for 



almost a third of the June 
rise. 

The all items index 
rose at an annual rate of 
6 percent in the June 
quarter compared with a 
2.9-percent gain in the 
March quarter. The un- 
adjusted June index stood 
at 170.1, up 5.9 percent 
from June 1975. 

The services index rose 
0.6 percent compared with 



a 0.4 percent rise in May. 
The cost of household 
services, except rent, rose 
more in June (0.7 percent), 
reflecting sharp increases 
in charges for natural gas, 
electricity, and home 
repair services. 

The commodities less 
food index rose 0.5 percent 
in June following a 0.6- 
percent increase in May. 
The gasoline and motor oil 



index rose 2.1 percent and 
the fuel oil and coal index 
rose 1 .5 percent 

The food index edged up 
02 percent in June, con- 
siderably less than the 
1 -percent advance posted 
in May. A 2.8-percent 
decrease in fruits and 
vegetables limited the 
increase in the overall 
index. 



200 
180 
160 
140 
120 
100 



INDEX, 1967=100 



INDEX, 1967-100 



I I I 

Consumer Price Index — All Items* 























































197 1 



1972 



1973 



1974 



1975 



1976 




1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 



PERCENT 







» i i i i i i i i i i I i t i i i i I i > i I i » i i i I i i . ■ . I i i i i 

1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 



CONSUMER PRICE INDEX 



JUNE 
1975 



MAY 
1976 



All Items, Total* 160.6 

Percent Change From Year Ago* 9.3 

By Commodity and Service Groups 

Services 166.0 

Household Services Less Rent 184.7 

Commodities Less Food 148.5 

Fuel Oil and Coal 231.1 

Gasoline and Motor Oil 166.6 

Food 174.6 

Fruits and Vegetables 168.7 

*Not Seasonally Adjusted 



Index, 1967=100 
169.2 
6.2 



178.8 
196.9 
155.3 
244.2 
170.5 
180.6 
172.9 



SOURCE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS 



JUNE 
1976 



170.1 
5.9 



179.9 
198.3 
156.0 
247.8 
174.0 
181.0 
168.0 



260 
240 
220 
200 
180 
160 
140 
120 
100 



INDEX, 1967=100 





I I I 

Commodities Less Food Group 




























/FUEL OIL AND COAL 










f GASOLINE 

/ AND MOTOR OIL 










(/ 














-COMMOD 
LESS FOO 


TIES 

D, TOTAL 


















■ • ■ i > • > ■ ■ i i 


i i i • i 


i ■ i i ■ i ■ i i ■ | 


i i i i i i i i t J i 



1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 



INDEX. 1967=100 




1971 1972 1973 1974 



1975 1976 



66 WHOLESALE PRICE INDEX 



Wholesale Prices Up 
At 6.6% Annual Rate 
For April-June 1976 

The wholesale price index 
for all commodities rose 
0.4 percent seasonally 
adjusted in June. This 
follows a 0.3-percent rise 
in May and a 0.8-percent 
advance in April. A slower 
rise in farm products and 
processed foods and feeds 



partially offset a larger 
increase in prices for 
industrial commodities. 

Wholesale prices rose at 
a seasonally adjusted annu- 
al rate of 6.6 percent dur- 
ing the April-to-June per- 
iod, the largest increase 
since the 3 months ending 
last November. The unad- 
justed index rose to 183.1 
percent of its 1967 average. 



By commodity classifica- 
tion, the farm products 
index edged up a seasonally- 
adjusted 0.3 percent in June. 
A 12.8-percent drop in fresh 
and dried fruits and vege- 
tables was a major factor. 
Livestock prices also de- 
clined. Processed foods and 
feeds rose 0.4 percent, con- 
siderably less than the gains 
posted in April and May. 
A decline in sugar and 



confectionery almost com- 
pletely offset a rise in 
manufactured animal feeds. 

Industrial commodities 
rose 0.5 percent, the larg- 
est increase since December 
1975. Accounting for more 
than half of the June rise 
were increases in metal pro- 
ducts (1.1 percent) and fuel 
and related products and 
power (1 percent). 



200 



INDEX. 1967-100 



INDEX, 1967=100 



140 



Wholesale Price Index* 
All Commodities, Total 




















Farm Products 


















FRUITS AND VEGETABLES 




FARM PRODUCTS, TOTAL -I| 








































V— LIVESTOCK 









' ' > ' ' 


''■■■■ 




1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 





1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 



PERCENT CHANGE. 3-MONTH SPAN 



971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 



INDEX, 1967-100 




197 1 



WHOLESALE PRICE INDEX 



JUNE 
1975 



MAY 
1976 



JUNE 
1976 



ALL COMMODITIES, TOTAL* 

(Index, 1967=100) 173.7 

Percent Change Over 3-Month Span, 
Seasonally Adjusted Annual Rate 6.5 



181.8 
5.5 
Index, 1967=100 



183.1 
6.6 



1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 



INDEX, 1967=100 



Farm Products 184.5 

Fresh and Dried Fruits 

and Vegetables 188.8 

Livestock 196.5 

Processed Foods and Feeds 180.4 

Sugar and Confectionery 221 .1 

Manufactured Animal Feeds 170.5 

Industrial Commodities 169.9 

Metals and Metal Products 182.9 

Fuels and Related Products 

and Power 239.6 



194.9 

168.4 
187.1 
181.6 
214.9 
186.3 
179.6 
192.5 

254.1 



195.4 

146.8 
179.7 
182.4 
200.4 
215.3 
180.5 
194.6 

256.7 




'Not Seasonally Adjusted 



197 1 



1972 1973 1974 1975 



1976 



SOURCE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS 



AGRICULTURAL PRICES 

Farmers Prices, Costs 
Hit Same Rate; First 
Time in 14 Months 

The index of prices received 
by farmers for their products 
rose for the second consec- 
utive month, increasing 4 
points (2 percent) to 195 
during the month ended June 
15. This was the highest 
level in 8 months. 



Prices paid by farmers 
for commodities and services, 
interest, taxes, and farm 
wage rates edged up 2 points 
(1 percent) to a new high of 
195. 

The ratio of prices received 
to prices paid rose to 100 
percent. This was the first 
time since April 1975 that 
prices received equaled prices 
paid. 



Oil-Bearing Crop 
Prices Rise 23%; 
All Crops Up 6% 

Prices received for all 
crops rose 1 1 points (6 
percent) to 209, its highest 
level since September 1975. 
Oil-bearing crops rose 41 
points (23 percent) to 222; 
soybeans were up at $6.16 
per bushel, $1 .29 above a 
month earlier. Livestock 



67 

and livestock products 
declined 1 point (0.5 per- 
cent) to 184. 

The production goods 
index was up 3 points (2 
percent) to a high of 199 
and has increased in 6 of 
the past 7 months. Feed 
prices rose 12 points (6 
percent) to 199. The last 
time the feed price index 
broke 200 was in Jan. 1975. 



INDEX, 1967-100 




100 



i i i i i i I i i i i i i i i * i i I i t i ■ t i 1 ■ i i i i i i i i i i I i i i ■ . i i . i i i 




1971 



1972 



1973 



1974 



1975 



1976 



340 
320 
300 
280 
260 
240 
220 
200 
180 
160 
140 
120 
100 
80 



INDEX. 1967=100 





I 
Selected Prices 
Received 










































OIL-B 


EARING CR 


OPS I 


























































































LIVEST 


DCK 

VESTOCK - 
CTS 






9$ 


' N ALLCR< 


DPS 


PRODU 




A^r > 





































240 




JUNE 15, 


MAY 15, 


JUNE 15, 




AGRICULTURAL PRICES 


1975 




1976 


1976 


220 
















Index 


, 1967= 


= 100 




Prices Received by Farmers 


186 




191 


195 




All Crops 


198 




198 


209 


200 


Oil-Bearing Crops 


184 




181 


222 




Livestock and Livestock Products 


176 




185 


184 


180 


Prices Paid by Farmers 


183 




193 


195 




Family Living Items 


166 




174 


175 




Production Items 


186 




196 


199 


160 


Feed 


184 




187 


199 




Ratio of Prices Received 










140 


to Prices Paid 


102 




99 


100 


120 



100 



80 



1971 1972 
INDEX, 1967=100 



1973 



1974 



1975 



1976 




1971 



1972 1973 1974 1975 



1976 



SOURCE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 



68 CAPACITY UTILIZATION 



Motor Vehicles Pace 3% 
Rise in Manufacturing 
Capacity 

The rate of manufacturing 
capacity in the first quar- 
ter of 1976 was 82 percent, 
3 percentage points higher 
than in the fourth quarter 
of 1975. The January-March 
rate was 7 points above the 
rates in the first half of 
1975. Increases occurred 



in all major industries, but 
were larger in durables 
than in nondurables. 

The capacity utilization 
rate in durable goods manu- 
facturing advanced 4 per- 
centage points, to 81 per- 
cent. Motor vehicles rose 
1 1 points to 98 percent 
as auto-makers stepped up 
output of large- and inter- 
mediate-sized models. That 
rate was the highest since 



the third quarter of 1973. 
Partly reflecting the step- 
up in motor vehicle produc- 
tion, primary metals rose 
9 points, to 78 percent. 

In nondurables, the 
1 -percentage point increase 
in the rate of capacity 
utilization was a result of 



a 5-point increase in rubber 
to 86 percent, and a rise 
of 4 points in textiles 
to a rate of 89 percent. 



1 10 



100 



90 



80 



70 



60 



PERCENT 



Capacity 


i Utilization 


in Manufa 


cturing 














































ALLMANL 


FACTURER 


S 




,-*•"»-, 






^V 




/ 








\ 


\r 


r 


































■ i i 


i i ■ 



1 10 



100 



PERCENT 




1971 



1972 



1973 



1974 



1975 



1976 



1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 



PERCENT 





1st 


4th 1st 


CAPACITY UTILIZATION 


QTR. 


QTR. QTR. 


IN MANUFACTURING 


1975 


1975 1976 




Operati 


ng Rates (Percent) 


All Manufacturers 


75 


79 82 


Durable Goods 


74 


77 81 


Primary Metals 


79 


69 78 


Motor Vehicles 


73 


87 98 


Nondurable Goods 


76 


81 82 


Textiles 


69 


85 89 


Rubber 


65 


81 86 




1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 



SOURCE BUREAU OF ECONOMIC ANALYSIS 



NEW PLANT & EQUIPMENT EXPENDITURES 



69 



First Quarter Gain 
Reverses Down Trend 
in Capital Spending 

Reversing a trend of four 
consecutive quarterly de- 
clines, actual new plant and 
equipment expenditures in 
the first quarter of 1976 
rose 2.6 percent to an 
annual rate of $114.72 
billion. Capital spending 
in manufacturing, rising 



$2.39 billion to a season- 
ally adjusted rate of $49.21 
billion, accounted for most 
of the increase. Outlays 
for plant and equipment in 
nonmanufacturing industries, 
edging upward $530 million, 
remained virtually unchanged. 

Capital investment in 
petroleum, rising $1.06 
billion to $11.38 billion, 
comprised almost three-fifths 
of the total increase of 



$1.83 billion in nondurable 
goods industries. 

A decline in primary 
metals was offset by small 
increases in other indus- 
tries in the durable goods 
sector, which rose $560 
million to a total of $21 .63 
billion. 

Capital spending is pro- 
jected to increase 7.3 per- 
cent in 1976 to an annual 
rate of $121 .03 billion. 



Manufacturing investment 
will rise 9.5 percent to 
$52.52 billion, while non- 
manufacturing capital in- 
vestment is expected to 
rise 5.7 percent to $68.50 
billion. However, this rep- 
resents an overall gain of 
only 0.8 percent in real 
capital expenditure after 
subtracting a 6.5-percent 
projected pace for infla- 
tion in 1976. 



BILLIONS OF DOLLARS 



New Plant and Equipment Expenditures 




25 - 1 — ' — ' — l 



35 
30 
25 
20 
15 
10 



BILLIONS OF DOLLARS 



1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 



BILLIONS OF DOLLARS 




Components of Nonmanufacturing 



TRANSPORTATION 




' ■ l_ 



■ ■ ' ' ■ 



Components of Manufacturing 



DURABLE GOODS 



\ 



PRIMARY METALS 



\ 



L I 1 1 L , L I 1 L ■■ 1 1 i i i 



1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 



BILLIONS OF DOLLARS 




197 1 
' Projections show as Dash Lines 



1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 

SOURCE BUREAU OF ECONOMIC ANALYSIS 



NEW PLANT & EQUIPMENT 


4th 


1st 




EXPENDITURES 


QTR. 


QTR 


1976* 






Billions of Dollars 




All Industries 


1 1 1 .80 


114.72 


121.03 


Manufacturing 


46.82 


49.21 


52.52 


Durable Goods 


21.07 


21.63 


22.74 


Primary Metals 


5.89 


5.51 


- 


Nondurable Goods 


25.75 


27.58 


29.78 


Petroleum 


10.32 


11.38 


— 


Nonmanufacturing 


64.98 


65.51 


68.50 


Public Utilities 


20.91 


21.91 


- 


Transportation 1 


7.60 


6.55 


- 


'Projected 








1 Includes railroad, air, 








and other 









70 CONSUMER INSTALLMENT CREDIT 



Gain of $1.47 Billion 
in May Consumer Credit 
Highest Since Dec. '75 

Outstanding consumer install- 
ment credit increased by 
$1.47 billion in May, re- 
sulting from liquidations 
of credit decreasing at a 
more rapid rate than ex- 
tensions. Extensions to- 
taled $15.04 billion, down 
3 percent from April. 



Liquidations dropped 4 
percent to a level of 
$13.57 billion. 

The $1.47-billion gain 
was the largest since the 
$1 .49-billion increase of 
December 1975. All major 
credit types except mobile 
homes registered an increase 
in credit outstanding. 
A gain of $652 million in 
automobile credit accounted 
for nearly half the total 



increase, with most of the 
remaining rise occurring in 
the "all other" category. 

Note: There were substan- 
tial revisions due to the 
recent availability of 
benchmark information from 
several major holders of 
consumer credit. However, 
only revisions of the total 
credit categories were avail- 
able as of this printing. 



BILLIONS OF DOLLARS 




BY CREDIT TYPE: 



AUTOMOBILE 



'ALL OTHER" 



REVOLVING 



HOME IMPROVEMENT 



MOBILE HOME 



+652 



+570 



+236 



+71 



-55 



D 



Net Change in Consumer 
Installment Credit 
Outstanding: May 1976 



1 1 1 

200 200 400 600 800 

MILLIONS OF DOLLARS 





MAY 


APRIL 


MAY 


CONSUMER CREDIT 


1975 


1976 


1976 






Millions of Dollars 




TOTAL INSTALLMENT CREDIT 








Extensions 


12,999 


15,508 


15,041 


Liquidations 


13,300 


14,126 


13,566 


Net Change in Credit Outstanding 


-300 


+ 1,382 


+ 1,474 



1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 

SOURCE BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE BOARD 



NET PUBLIC & PRIVATE DEBT 



71 



Net Public, Private 
Debt Nears $3 Trillion 
by the End of 1975 

Net public and private debt 
reached $2,997.1 billion by 
the end of 1975, 8.3 percent 
higher than at the same 
time in 1974. Net public 
debt increased more rapidly 
(15.1 percent) than net 
private debt (6.2 percent) 



for the first time since 
World War II. 

Federal Government debt 
led the sharp rise in net 
public debt. Heavy Treasury 
financing requirements in- 
creased Federal Government 
debt almost 24 percent in 
1975. This was the fastest 
rate of increase since World 
War II. State and local 
government debt grew at a 
slower pace in 1975 (4.7 



percent) than in 1974 (8.4 
percent). Debt of federally 
sponsored credit agencies 
increased 3.1 percent in 
1975, compared with 27.8 
percent in 1974. 

Net private debt has 
steadily grown as a propor- 
tion of total net debt since 
1950. In 1950, the total 
net debt was almost evenly 
split between the private 
and public sectors. How- 



ever, in 1975, private debt 
comprised approximately 
three-quarters of total 
debt. Despite the heavy 
borrowing, the Federal debt 
remained at a historically 
low level as a proportion 
of all debt outstanding. 



1,000 



BILLIONS OF DOLLARS (RATIO SCALE 




1915 1920 



1925 



1930 



1935 



1940 



1945 



1950 



1955 



1960 



1965 



1970 1975 



Components of Total Net Public Debt: 1916-1975 

BILLIONS OF DOLLARS (RATIO SCALE) 



000 



100 



10 



0.1 




1915 1925 1935 1945 1955 1965 1975 



NET PUBLIC & 
PRIVATE DEBT 


1916 


1945 


1975 






Billions of Dollars 




Net Public and Private Debt, Total 


82.2 


405.9 


2,997.1 


Net Public Debt, Total 
Federal Government 
Federally Sponsored 

Credit Agencies 
State and Local Government 


5.7 
1.2 

NA 
4.5 


265.9 
252.5 

NA 
13.4 


741.2 
446.3 

78.8 
216.1 


Net Private Debt, Total 


76.5 


140.0 


2,255.9 



NA Not Available 



Distribution of Total Net Public and Private Debt: Selected Years 

PERCENT 



100 



80 -- 



60 



40 -- 



20 -- 



- L 



NET PUBLIC DEBT 

FEDERAL GOVERNMENT 



_ FEDERALLY SPONSORED CREDIT 
AGENCIES 

STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT 
NET PRIVATE DEBT 



CORPORATIONS 



-UNINCORPORATED BUSINESS 
AND FARM 



ONE- TO FOUR-FAMILY MORTGAGE 



CONSUMER 



1950 1960 1970 1975 



SOURCE BUREAU OF ECONOMIC ANALYSIS 



72 INTEREST RATES 



Interest Rates Drop for 
Most Long-Term Bonds 
During June 

LONG-TERM RATES: The aver- 
age yield on corporate AAA 
bonds declined to 8.88 per- 
cent after rising sharply in 
May. The June 1976 level is 
about 1 5 percent below the 
September 1974 peak. After 
rising for the first time 
in 7 months in May, yields 

PERCENT PER ANNUM 



on long-term treasury bonds 
declined to an average of 
6.94 percent. The yield 
from a 20-bond average of 
high-grade municipal bonds 
was unchanged at 6.87 per- 
cent. Residential mortgage 
yields rose 2.4 percent in 
May (the latest month for 
which data are available) 
to 9.03 percent. This was 
the first increase since 
last September. 




1971 1972 1973 1974 

SOURCE BUREAU OF ECONOMIC ANALYSIS 



PERCENT PER ANNUM 



975 



1976 




A x^A*Ai***.***i*tii*i«ii»iii»»i»i»iiitiititi»t»i»ii i . ■ i 

1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 

SOURCE FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK BOARD 



15 

14 

13 

12 

1 1 

10 

9 

8 

7 

6 

5 

4 

3 

2 

1 





CONVENTIONAL MORT- 
GAGE RATES: The effective 
rate on conventional loans to buy 
existing homes continued to 
decline in May, reaching 
9.03 percent. Following a 
general decline in recent 
months, the average rate on 
loans to buy new homes post- 
ed a slight upturn to 8.98 
percent in May. 

SHORT-TERM RATES: Short- 
term rates rose sharply in 

PERCENT PER ANNUM 



June. The average rate on 
Federal funds rose to 5.48 
percent. The average prime 
rate charged by banks, 
which had remained stable 
at 6.75 percent since Feb- 
ruary, jumped to 7.25 per- 
cent. Rates on 3-month 
treasury bills rose to 5.47 
percent. 

Note: Mortgage yields apply 
only to single-family homes. 



















Short-Term Interest Rates 






































FEDERAL FUNDS R 


ATE- 


















AVERAGE 

Iprime rate 












1 BY BANKS 


























A 






Vfc^ 




TREASURY BILL 
/ RATES 


l/v \ 


^/ 




7 V 








v 


>f* 
















































■ i i i i i i ■ . i i 


' » » » 









1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 

SOURCE BUREAU OF ECONOMIC ANALYSIS 





JUNE 


MAY 


JUNE 


INTEREST RATES* 


1975 


1976 


1976 






Percent 




LONG-TERM INTEREST RATES" 








Corporate Bond Yields 


9.27 


9.00 


8.88 


Treasury Bond Yields (10 or more years) 


6.86 


7.01 


6.94 


Municipal Bond Yields 


6.95 


6.87 


6.87 


Residential Mortgage Yields 


9.06 


9.03 


NA 


EFFECTIVE CONVENTIONAL 








MORTGAGE INTEREST RATES 








Existing Homes 


9.05 


9.03 


NA 


New Homes 


8.96 


8.98 


NA 


SHORT-TERM INTEREST RATES" 








Federal Funds Rate 


5.55 


5.29 


5.48 


Average Prime Rate Charged by Banks 


7.08 


6.75 


7.25 


Treasury Bill Rates 


5.19 


5.18 


5.47 


'Not Seasonally Adjusted 




"June Estimates 








NA Not Available 









Section IV 



other 
trends 



73 



Science & Engineering 
Personnel 

Distribution of Doctoral 
Scientists, by Field: 
Selected Years 74 

Distribution of Doctoral 
Scientists, by Primary Work 
Activity: Selected Years 74 

Bachelors Degrees in Science 
and Engineering: 1960-1972 74 

Enrollment for Advanced 
Degrees in Science and 
Engineering: 1960-1972 74 

Women as a Percent of Total 
Science and Engineering 
Doctorate Recipients, by 
Field: 1965-1974 75 

Minority Representation 
Among Scientists and 
Engineers, by Field: 1972 75 

U.S. Passports Issued 

U.S. Passports Issued 
1973-1976 76 

Distribution by Residence 76 

Distribution by First 
Area of Destination 76 

Adult Use of Tobacco 

Distribution of Adult 
Cigarette Smokers, by Sex: 
Selected Years 77 

Distribution of Adult 
Smokers, by Age and Sex: 
Selected Years 77 



Characteristics of Adult 
Smokers, by Sex: 1975 



78 



Distribution of Adult 
Smokers, by Cigarette Tar 
Level: 1970 and 1975 78 



Distribution of Adult 
Smokers, by Cigarette 
Nicotine Level: 1970 and 
1975 78 

Public Attitudes Towards 
Cigarette Smoking: 1970 
and 1975 79 

Production & Imports: 
Steel, Coal, Crude Oil 

Production and Imports 
of Steel 80 

Production of Coal 80 

Production and Imports 
of Crude Oil 80 



74 SCIENCES ENGINEERING PERSONNEL 



Physical Scientists 
With Doctorates Drop 
to 31% of Total 

According to the latest data 
available (1973), there are 
about 245,000 doctoral scien- 
tists and engineers in the 
United States. Among them, 
physical scientists declined 
over the 1966-73 period from 
45 percent of the total to 
31 percent, while life 



scientists increased sharply 
to 31 percent. 

Teaching and research and 
development represent the 
primary work activities of 
doctoral scientists. A 
declining proportion was 
involved in research and 
development, while there 
was an increase in the 
proportion reported as 
primarily teaching. 



Science, Engineering 
Bachelor's Degree 
Recipients Double 

From 1960 to 1972, the 
annual recipients of science 
and engineering bachelor's 
degrees doubled to a level 
of 281 ,228 recipients. The 
number of recipients of 
social science degrees 
tripled, and recipients of 
mathematical science and 



life science degrees also 
showed strong gains. 

Enrollments for advanced 
degrees in science and 
engineering fields also 
doubled in size from 1960 
to 1972, despite a slight 
decline in 1972. Engineering 
had the largest enrollment 
from 1960 through 1968, 
and since 1969, enrollment 
in the social science field 
has been the highest. 



Distribution of Doctoral Scientists, by Field: 


Selected Years 


PHYSICAL 
SCIENTISTS 








i 




1 


: : 








: 


T^ 




1966 
1968 
1970 
1973 








MATHEMATICAL 
SCIENTISTS 


^ 










LIFE 

SCIENTISTS 


1 










: 


H 


PSYCHOLOGISTS 

SOCIAL 
SCIENTISTS 






: 


: 1 








: 








1 


i | 




• 




: 


_ 
■ : 











1 40 



TH0USAN0S 



10 



20 30 

PERCENT 



40 



50 



Distribution of Doctoral Scientists, by Primary Work Activity: 
Selected Years 



RESEARCH AND 
DEVELOPMENT 

MANAGEMENT OR 
ADMINISTRATION 

TEACHING 
OTHER 










■ 
















; 








: 1 
















1966 
1968 
1970 
1973 

■ 










































•I 


L. 


















1 


I 




d 






10 


20 


30 40 


5C 






PERCENT 




BACHELORS' DEGREES 


1960 




1966 


1972 








Thousands 




All Sciences and Engineering 


120.9 




173.5 


281.2 


Physical Sciences 


16.1 




17.2 


20.9 


Engineering 


37.8 




35.8 


46.0 


Mathematical Sciences 


11.4 




20.2 


27.3 


Life Sciences 


24.1 




37.0 


53.5 


Social Sciences 


31.5 




63.4 


133.6 


ENROLLMENT FOR ADVANCED DEGREES 








All Sciences and Engineering 


120.6 




207.0 


243.0 


Physical Sciences 


25.7 




38.0 


36.0 


Engineering 


36.6 




58.3 


55.8 


Mathematical Sciences 


11.8 




23.2 


28.1 


Life Sciences 


197 




37.0 


49.1 


Social Sciences 


26.8 




50.6 


73.9 



120 - 



100 - 




960 



THOUSANDS 



1964 



1968 



1972 



140 



120 



100 - 



80 - 



Enrollment for Advanced Degrees in Science and 
Engineering: 1960-1972 




960 



1 964 



1968 



SOURCE NATIONAL CENTER FOR EDUCATION STATISTICS AND NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION 



SCIENCE & ENGINEERING PERSONNEL 



Science, Engineering 
Doctorates Increase 
250% for Women 

An increasing number of 
women are pursuing advanced 
studies in science and engi- 
neering. Between 1965 and 
1974, the number of women 
receiving doctoral degrees 
in these fields increased 
by almost 250 percent, from 
744 to 2,590. This absolute 



growth also represents an 
increase in the share of 
science and engineering 
doctorates earned by women. 
The proportion grew from 
7 percent in 1965 to 14 
percent in 1974 when women 
were awarded 24 percent of 
the social science doctor- 
ates, but 10 percent or 
less of those in mathema- 
tical sciences, physical 
sciences, and engineering. 



Mathematics Draws 
Largest Proportion 
of Racial Minorities 

The field of mathematics 
has the largest proportion 
of racial minorities (8.3 
percent), followed by the 
physical sciences (5.8 per- 
cent) and the life sciences 
(5.5 percent). Blacks have 
the highest level of partici- 
pation in mathematics, 



75 

representing 4.5 percent of 
all mathematicians. Orien- 
tals are the largest minor- 
ity in the physical sciences 
(3.8 percent). 

The largest absolute num- 
ber of minorities, by total 
and for each group, are 
found in engineering, al- 
though minorities have the 
smallest proportional repre- 
sentation in this field. 



PERCENT 




Minority Representation Among Scientists 
and Engineers, by Field: 1972 



ALL SCIENCE AND 
ENGINEERING FIELDS | 

0.4 



ENGINEERS 



MATHEMATICAL 




SCIENTISTS 






J 3 . 2 




00.6 




|3.5 


COMPUTER 
SCIENTISTS 


I 1 
1 1 


.5 
.5 





LIFE 
SCIENTISTS 



PHYSICAL 
SCIENTISTS 




5.5 



5.8 



JLi 



|0.3 



3.8 



SOCIAL SCIENTISTS 
AND PSYCHOLOGISTS | 




2 4 6 

PERCENT 



WOMEN AS A PERCENT OF 
TOTAL SCIENCE & ENGINEERING 
DOCTORATE RECIPIENTS, BY FIELD 1965 



1969 



8 10 



1974 



1964 1966 1968 1970 1972 1974 



TOTAL 

Physical Sciences 
Engineering 
Mathematical Sciences 
Social Sciences 

Z Less than 0.5 percent. 





Percent 




7 


9 


14 


4 


5 


7 


Z 


Z 


1 


10 


14 


18 


13 


17 


24 



SOURCE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES AND NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION 



76 U.S. PASSPORTS ISSUED 



Americans Planning 
Foreign Trips Boost Pass- 
port Issuances in 1976 

Passport issuances during 
recent years have shown 
a steady decline. The num- 
ber of passports issued to 
U.S. citizens decreased 
14.4 percent, from 2,729,000 
during 1973 to 2,334,000 in 
1975. However, this trend 
was reversed during January- 



U.S. Passports Issued: 
1973-1976 



OCTOBER-DECEMBER 
JULY-SEPTEMBER 
APRIL-JUNE 
JANUARY-MARCH 



100 



NUMBER (PER 100) 



80 -- 



60 -- 



40 -- 



20 -- 



32 



22 



19 



13 






March 1976 when the number 
of passports issued rose 
to 662,000, surpassing first- 
quarter issuances for both 
1974 and 1975. More pass- 
ports are issued during the 
second quarter of the year 
(April-June) than during 
any other period. 

The largest percentage 
of persons receiving 
passports during the first 
3 months of 1976 were 

THOUSANDS OF PASSPORTS ISSUED 



residents of the northeast- 
ern region of the U.S. The 
smallest proportion (5 per- 
cent) resided in the moun- 
tain regions. 

Europe continues to be 
the most popular destination, 
accounting for 69 percent of 
all passport recipients who 
reported their destination 
during first quarter 1976. 

The 10 most popular 
countries intended to be 



visited during the January- 
March quarter of 1976 were 
United Kingdom, Germany, 
France, Italy, Switzerland, 
Austria, Spain, Nether- 
lands, Israel, and Japan. 

Note: Data are based on 
a random sample of 9.9 per- 
cent of all passports issued, 
and reflect information 
included in passport 
application. 



3000 



2500 - 



2000 - 



1500 - 



1000 - 



500 - 



1973 



Distribution by Residence 
Per 100 Passport Recipients: 
First Quarter 1976 



NORTHEASTERN 
NORTH CENTRAL 

PACIFIC 

SOUTH ATLANTIC 

SOUTH CENTRAL 
MOUNTAIN 



100 



1974 1975 

NUMBER (PER 100) 



80 -- 



60 



40 -- 



20 -- 



69 



13 



1976 



Distribution by First Area 
of Destination Per 100 
Passport Recipients: 
First Quarter 1976 



EUROPE 



NORTH. CENTRAL.AND 
SOUTH AMERICA 

FAR EAST 

MIDDLE EAST 
AUSTRALIA AND OCEANIA 
AFRICA 



SOURCE U.S. PASSPORT OFFICE 



ADULT USE OF TOBACCO 



77 



Adult Male Smokers 
Decline 25% 

Since 1964 there has been a 
gradual decrease in the pro- 
portion of adult male and 
female cigarette smokers in 
the United States. In 1964- 
66, more than half of adult 
males reported that they 
were cigarette smokers while 
in 1975, 39.3 percent were 
smokers— a 25-percent decline. 



The corresponding percent- 
ages for females were 32.5 
percent in 1964-66 and 
28.9 percent in 1975. 

Among males, decreases 
in the proportion of smokers 
were observed in every age 
group except the oldest 
from 1970 to 1975. There 
was a 5.7-percent increase 
in the proportion of men 
aged 65 and over who were 
cigarette smokers. The 



greatest decline occurred 
among males 21 to 24 years 
of age between 1970 and 
1975. In all but two age 
groups in 1964-66 more than 
half of males smoked ciga- 
rettes. In 1975, there was 
not a majority of smokers 
in any category. In 1964-66 
the greatest concentration 
of smokers was found in the 
21-to24-age group. By 1975, 
this concentration had 



shifted to those aged 
35 to 44. 

Among women, there was 
an increase in the portion 
of smokers in the age group 
21 to 24 years, and in the 
55-to64-age group between 
1970 and 1975. There was 
a decrease or no change in 
the proportion of cigarette 
smokers in all other age 
groups. 





PERCENT 


















du - 






Distribution of Adult Cigarette Smokers, By Sex: 
Selected Years 


55- 






1964-66 






52.4 






1970 
1975 










50 -J 








45- 






- 








42.2 




40- 




39.3 


35- 
























32.5 










30.5 




30- 




28.9 

HI 


25- 


















- 


20- 


















- 


15- 


















- 


10- 


















- 


5 J 


















- 


n 
















i 



s, By Age and Sex 


: Selected Years 


21-24 


i i i 


1 964-66 




45.2 


1970 


: 


J2 .3 
34.0 


1975 




25-34 








1964-66 




42.6 
40.3 
35.4 


1970 




1975 






35-44 








1964-66 




39.9 
38.8 
36.4 


1970 




1975 




45-54 








1964-66 




39.9 
36. 1 


1970 




1975 




' 


32.8 


55 64 










1964-66 




20.5 
24.2 
25.9 


1970 




1975 




65+ 

1964-66 
1970 
1975 


J 


1C 
1C 
7. 


) .2 
1.2 
1 

f— 


_i_ — 4 



100 75 50 25 25 50 75 

MALE FEMALE 

SOURCE U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH, EDUCATION, AND WELFARE: PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, CENTER FOR DISEASE CONTROL; NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH 



MALE 
21 AND OVER 



FEMALE 
21 AND OVER 



100 



78 ADULT USE OF TOBACCO 



Highest Smoking Rates 
Among Divorced or 
Separated Persons 

In 197b, while only one- 
third of the married re- 
spondents living with their 
spouses were smokers, 60.1 
percent of the males and 
50 percent of the females 
who were divorced or sepa- 
rated were smokers. 



Among males, white-collar 
workers were less likely to 
be smokers (35.6 percent) 
than those in blue-collar 
occupations (47.1 percent). 
Among females, this 
relationship was found to 
be the reverse. 

A large portion of male 
high school graduates were 
smokers (44.4 percent), and 
32.3 percent of females with 
some college were smokers. 



More Adults Smoke 
'Safer' Cigarettes 

Most adults who continue to 
smoke are smoking cigarettes 
with lower tar and nicotine 
levels. In 1975, 20 percent 
of smokers said they used 
a cigarette with 20 or more 
milligrams of tar, down 
from 55 percent in 1970. 
The proportion smoking cig- 
arettes with nicotine levels 



of 1 .4 milligrams and above 
declined from 45 to 18 per- 
cent. In 1970, less than 
10 percent of smokers smok- 
ed cigarettes with tar levels 
of 1 5 milligrams or less, 
compared to 1 5 percent in 
1975. Cigarettes with less 
than 1.0 milligrams of 
nicotine were smoked by 
less than 6 percent in 1970, 
but by more than 1 1 percent 
in 1975. 



Characteristics of Adult Smokers, by Sex: 1975 



PERCENT 




4 r- 



35.6 



MARITAL 
STATUS 

MARRIED 



SINGLE 



DIVORCED 
SEPARATED 



WIDOWED 



: 



1 1 1 

FEMALE 
28.3 



30.6 



6 



50.0 



19.3 



47.1 




NA 



"7 H 



OCCUPATION 



WHITE 
COLLAR 



BLUE 
COLLAR 



HOUSEWIFE 



34.2 



32.3 




26.9 



EDUCATIONAL 
LEVEL 



44.4 




29.7 



36.7 




SOME 
COLLEGE 



ZJ 



32.3 



28.1 



-I 1 1- 




21.1 



H 1 h 




J 



15 


16 


17 


18 19 


20 


21 


22 


OR LESS 






MILLIGRAMS 






OR MORE 



B 



1970 



1975 



40 



PERCENT 



Distribution of Adult Smokers, by Cigarette 
Nicotine Level: 1970 and 1975 




80 60 40 20 20 40 60 80 

PERCENT MILLIGRAMS 

SOURCE US DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH. EDUCATION. AND WELFARE PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, CENTER FOR DISEASE CONTROL; NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH 



ADULT USE OF TOBACCO 

Smoking Restrictions 
Receive Increased 
Support From Public 

The American public, smok- 
ers and nonsmokers, have 
become increasingly less 
tolerant of smoking. 

This change in attitude 
is evidenced by response to 
the statement "smoking should 
be allowed in fewer places 
than it is now." Between 



79 



1970 and 1975, the proportion 
of smokers in agreement with 
this statement rose from 
42 percent to 51 percent, 
and the proportion of non- 
smokers in agreement rose 
from 66 percent to 80 per- 
cent, despite the fact that 
there are increasing re- 
strictions on places where 
people are allowed to smoke. 

A large proportion of 
both groups felt teachers 



should set an example by 
not smoking. While it is 
understandable that fewer 
smokers than nonsmokers 
agree, it is significant 
that almost two out of 
three smokers felt that 
teachers should set an 
example. 



Public Attitudes Towards Cigarette Smoking: 1970 and 1975 



SMOKERS 



1 




I 






r r 


41 


.6 




51 .0 










79. 1 




71 


.8 










49.9 






42 


■•1 





49.0 




43 


*l 










58. 1 




62 


-I 








34. 1 




34.8 1 


r 




1- 






4— 


1 




SMOKING SHOULD BE 

ALLOWED IN FEWER 

PLACES THAN IT IS NOW 



SMOKING IS ENOUGH OF 
A HEALTH HAZARD FOR 
SOMETHING TO BE DONE 



CIGARETTE ADVERTISING 

SHOULD BE STOPPED 

COMPLETELY 



THE PUBLIC KNOWS ALL IT 

NEEDS TO KNOW ABOUT THE 

EFFECTS OF SMOKING 



TEACHERSSHOULD SET AN 
EXAMPLE BY NOT SMOKING 



NONSMOKERS 
"I 1 1 1 r 



65.6 



80. 1 




66.6 
62.5 



40 . 1 
38. 2 



79.0 
84 . 1 



IT IS ANNOYING TO BE 

NEAR A PERSON SMOKING 

CIGARETTES 



100 80 60 40 20 20 40 60 80 100 

PERCENT PERCENT 

SOURCE U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH, EDUCATION, AND WELFARE: PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, CENTER FOR DISEASE CONTROL; NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH 




80 PRODUCTION & IMPORTS: STEEL, COAL, CRUDE OIL 



Crude Oil, Raw Steel 
Production Increase; 
Bituminous Coal Dips 

STEEL: Production of raw 
steel during the month of 
May totaled 12.1 million 
short tons, the highest 
level since October 1974. 
This represents an increase 
of 6.1 percent over the 
April level and a total 
gain of 45 percent since 



last July's 3 1 /2-year low 
of 8.4 million tons. 

In May, imports of steel 
mill products rose 13 per- 
cent to 1 .1 million short 
tons, the highest level 
since last December. Im- 
ports have increased 25 per- 
cent since May 1975. 

COAL: Production of 
bituminous coal declined for 
the second month in May, 
down 2.2 percent to 56.6 



million short tons. How- 
ever, May 1976 production 
was 2.2 percent above 
May 1975. 

CRUDE OIL: In March, 
domestic crude oil pro- 
duction jumped 6.6 percent 
to 253.4 million barrels, 
the highest level since 
October 1974. Imports 
posted a 14.3-percent drop 
in February (the latest 
month for which data are 



available) to 122.0 million 
barrels. 

Imports have accounted 
for an increasingly larger 
share of total U.S. crude 
oil supply. The imports' 
share has increased from 
approximately one-fifth 
in 1972 to more than 
one-third in 1976. 



MILLIONS OF SHORT TONS 



MILLIONS OF BARRELS 




Q ' f .... 1 1 I . . ■ ■ I ■ . ■ ■ I 

1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 

SOURCE AMERICAN IRON AND STEEL INSTITUTE 
MILLIONS OF SHORT TONS 




-L" 



1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 

SOURCE 8UREAU OF MINES 




1976 



PRODUCTION & IMPORTS: STEEL. 
COAL, CRUDE OIL 



MAY 
1975 



APRIL 
1976 



MAY 
1976 



STEEL* 

Production of Raw Steel 

Imports of Steel Mill Products 

COAL PRODUCTION' 
Bituminous Coal 



CRUDE OIL' 

Domestic Production 

Imports 

Imports as a Percent of Total Supply 



Millions of Short Tons 



9.864 
0.856 



55.370 

MARCH 
1975 



11.439 
0.948 

57.850 

FEB. 
1976 



12.136 
1.071 



56.605 

MARCH 
1976 



Millions of Barrels 
251.274 237.675 253.427 

113.345 122.030 NA 

31.1 33.9 NA 



'Not Seasonally Adjusted 
NA Not Available 



notes & 
definitions 



81 



NOTES 

Rounding— Detailed data in 
the tables may not agree 
with totals because of 
independent rounding. 
Furthermore, calculations 
shown in the text, such as 
percent and absolute changes 
are based on the unrounded 
figures and therefore may 
not agree with those derived 
from rounded figures in the 
table. 

Seasonal Adjustment— Unless 
otherwise indicated, all data 
of less than annual frequency 
are seasonally adjusted by 
the source agency or exhibit 
no seasonal fluctuation. 

Survey and Sampling Error— 

The data in this chartbook 
come from a variety of sur- 
veys and other sources. Data 
from sample surveys are sub- 
ject to sampling error, and 
all the data are subject to 
possible nonsampling error 
due to nonresponse, report- 
ing, and analysis error. 
For more detailed explana- 
tions of the sampling and 
nonsampling errors asso- 
ciated with each series, 
contact the appropriate 
source. 



DEFINITIONS 

GENERAL 

Average or Arithmetic Mean— 

The sum of the values of all 
cases divided by the number 
of cases. 

Constant Dollars— Computed 
values which remove the effect 
of price changes over time, 
generally derived by dividing 
current-dollar values by their 
corresponding price indexes. 

Current Dollars— The dollar 
as valued in any given period, 
with no adjustment for price 
changes. 

Durable Goods— Items with an 
extended life expectancy, 
normally 3 years or more. 

Housing Un'rt— One or more 
rooms intended for use as 
separate living quarters and 
including access from the 
outside, either direct or 
through a common hall, or 
complete kitchen facilities 
for exclusive use by the 
occupants. 

Index Number— A measure of 
relative value compared with a 
base figure (usually set equal 
to 100) for the same series. 

Median— The value which 
divides the distribution 
into two equal parts— one-half 
the cases falling below this 
value and one-half exceeding 
this value. 



Nondurable Goods— Items which 
are consumed by their utiliza- 
tion or with a short life 
expectancy (less than 3 years). 

Projections— Estimates for 
the future based on past 
records and on assumptions 
regarding future growth. 

Race Designations— The term 
"black" is used for data 
relating to black persons 
regardless of earlier class- 
ification (e.g., Negro) and 
regardless of date of enu- 
meration. The term "black 
and other races" describes 
data for persons of all 
races other than white and 
generally is used whenever 
data for blacks alone are 
not available for the speci- 
fic time period required. 
Statistics for the national 
population of black and 
other races largely reflect 
the condition of the black 
population, since 90 percent 
of the population of black 
and other races is black. 



Real— Measured in dollars of 
constant purchasing power. 
See constant dollars. 

Seasonal Adjustment— Statis- 
tical modifications made to 
compensate for fluctuations 
in a time series which recur 
more or less regularly each 
year. The cause may be 
climatic (farm income is 
highest in the fall) or in- 
stitutional (retail sales peak 
just before Christmas). 

Seasonally Adjusted Annual 

Rate— Indicates that data 
have been adjusted for sea- 
sonal variation and then 
expressed as if the same 
level of performance for the 
reported period would con- 
tinue for the entire year. 

Standard Metropolitan 
Statistical Area (SMSA)-An 
integrated economic and social 
unit with a large population 
nucleus containing at least 
one central city with 50,000 
inhabitants or more or two 
cities having contiguous 
boundaries and a combined 
population of at least 50,000. 



82 



NOTES & DEFINITIONS- Continued 



Section I 

PEOPLE 

Selected Current Vital Statistics 

Rates are on an annual 
basis, per 1 ,000 estimated 
resident population for 
specific months. Divorce 
figures include reported 
annulments. 

Population— Components of 
Change 

Net Civilian Immigration- 
Includes (1) alien immigra- 
tions, (2) net arrivals from 
Puerto Rico, (3) net immigra- 
tion of civilian citizens 
affiliated with the U.S. 
government, and (4) immigra- 
tion not included in (2) or 
(3) above. 

School Enrollment 

Part-Time College Student— 
An enrolled student taking 
less than 12 hours of in- 
struction during the average 
school week. 

Full-Time Student— An 
enrolled student taking 12 
or more hours of instruction 
during the average school 
week. 

Employment and 
Unemployment 

Average (Mean) Duration of 
Unemployment— Length of time 
through the current survey 
week during which persons 
classified as unemployed had 
been continuously looking 
for work. 



Civilian Labor Force— All 

civilians 16 years old and 
over who were employed or 
unemployed during a 
specified week. 

Employed Persons— Persons 
who did any work for pay or 
profit, worked 15 hours or 
more as unpaid workers in a 
family enterprise, or who 
were temporarily absent from 
their jobs for noneconomic 
reasons. 

Unemployed Persons— Persons 
not working but available 
and looking for work, on 
layoff from a job, or waiting 
to report to a new job. 

Personal Income 

Income received by all 
individuals in the economy 
from all sources. 

Distributive Industries- 
Industries involved in the 
flow of goods and services 
from production to consump- 
tion, including buying, 
selling, advertising, 
transporting, etc. 

Wage and Salary Disbursements 

—All employee earnings, in- 
cluding wages, salaries, 
bonuses, commissions, pay- 
ments in kind, incentive 
payments and tips, paid to 
employees in a given period 
of time, regardless of when 
earned. 



Special Feature 

HEALTH 

Life Expectancy— The average 
remaining lifetime (or 
expectation of life) at any 
given age is the average 
number of years remaining to 
be lived by those persons 
surviving to that age on the 
basis of a given set of age- 
specific rates of dying. 

National Health Expenditures 

—Total amount Americans 
spend in both private and 
public funds for all health 
care, including hospital 
care, physicians' services, 
dentists' services, drugs 
and drug sundries, eyeglasses 
and appliances, nursing home 
care, expenses for prepay- 
ment and administration of 
health insurance, government 
public health activities, 
other health services, re- 
search, and medical facilities 
construction. 

Personal Health Expenditures 

— Includes all categories 
listed under National Health 
Expenditures except expenses 
for prepayment and adminis- 
tration of health insurance, 
government public health 
activities, research, and 
medical facilities construction. 

Age-Adjusted Death Rate— A 
hypothetical summary measure 
of mortality that is inde- 
pendent of the age composi- 
tion of the given population. 



Section II 

COMMUNITY 

Housing Quality 



Standard Metropolitan 
Statistical (SMSA)-See 

General Definitions. 

Housing Unit— See General 
Definitions. 

Complete Plumbing Facilities 

—Hot and cold piped water, 
a flush toilet, and a bathtub 
or shower. 

Crime Index Trends 

Burglary— Breaking or enter- 
ing—burglary, housebreaking, 
safecracking, or any break- 
ing or unlawful entry of a 
structure with the intent 
to commit a felony or a 
theft. Includes attempted 
forcible entry. 

Larceny-Theft (except Motor 
Vehicle Theft)— The unlawful 
taking, carrying, leading, 
or riding away of property 
from the possession of 
another. Any stealing of 
property or article which 
is not taken by force and 
violence or by fraud. 

Robbery— Stealing or taking 
anything of value from the 
care, custody, or control of 
a person, by force or by 
violence, or by putting in 
fear, such as strong-arm 
robbery, stickups, armed 
robbery, assaults to rob, 
and attempts to rob. 



83 



Section III 

ECONOMY 

Industrial Production 

Industrial Production Index- 
Measures average changes in 
the physical volume of output 
produced by the Nation's 
factories, mines, and 
generating plants. 

Major Market Groupings- 
Groupings of industries to 
reflect the end uses (or 
primary customers) to which 
the goods are put. 

Manufacturing and Trade Sales 
and Inventories 

Inventory-to-Sales Ratio- 
Indicates the number of 
months supply of goods on 
hand at the current rate of 
sales. The respective ratios 
are derived by dividing the 
value of inventories at the 
end of a given period by the 
value of sales during the 
same period. 

Advance Retail Sales 

General Merchandise Group 
With Nonstores— Includes 
department stores, variety 
stores, general stores, and 
those selling general mer- 
chandise by mail and vending 
machine. 



Value of New Construction 

Value of New Construction 

Put in Place— Measures the 
estimated value of both 
private and public construc- 
tion activity, including 
additions and alterations 
of existing structures. The 
estimates are intended to 
represent value of construc- 
tion installed or erected 
during a given time period 
and cover the cost of labor 
and materials, as well as 
the cost of architectural 
and engineering fees, charges 
for equipment and overhead, 
and profit on construction 
operations. 

Consumer Price Index 

Measures average changes in 
prices of a fixed market 
basket of goods and services 
bought by urban wage 
earners and clerical workers. 
It is based on prices of 
about 400 items obtained 
in urban portions of 39 
major statistical areas and 
17 smaller cities, chosen 
to represent all urban areas 
in the United States. 

Wholesale Price Index 

Measures average changes 
in prices of commodities 
sold in large quantities by 
producers in primary markets 
in the U.S. The index is 
based on a sample of about 
2,700 commodities selected 
to represent the movement of 
prices of all commodities 
produced. 



Agricultural Prices 

Ratio of Index of Prices 
Received by Farmers to 
Index of Prices Paid— Meas- 
ures the purchasing power 
of products sold by farmers 
compared to their purchasing 
power in the base period. 
Above 100, products sold by 
farmers have an average per- 
unit purchasing power higher 
than in the base period. 
Below 100, the average per- 
unit purchasing power of 
commodities sold by farmers 
is less than in the base 
period. It is a price 
comparison, not a measure 
of cost, standard of living, 
or income parity. 

Capacity Utilization Rate 

Equals actual output divided 
by capacity output. Capacity 
output is the maximum amount 
of output that can be pro- 
duced during a given time 
with existing plant and 
equipment. 

New Plant and Equipment 
Expenditures 

Expenditures by all private 
business (except farming, 
real estate, the professions, 
and nonprofit and other 
institutions) for new plant, 
machinery, and equipment. 
Includes automobiles, trucks, 
and other transport equip- 
ment and excludes expendi- 
tures for land and mineral 
rights, maintenance and 
repair, and expenditures 
made in foreign countries. 



Consumer Installment Credit 

"All Other" Credit— Consists 
of consumer goods other 
than automobiles and 
personal loans. 

Net Public and Private Debt 

Federally Sponsored Credit 

Agencies— Those in which 
there is no longer any 
Federal proprietary interest; 
currently there are five 
such agencies— Federal Land 
Banks, Federal Home Loan 
Banks, Federal National 
Mortgage Association, 
Federal Intermediate Credit 
Banks, and Banks for 
Cooperatives. 

Interest Rates 

Prime Rate Charged by Banks— 

The rate of interest charged by 
large commercial banks for 
loans to top-rated borrowers. 

Federal Funds Rate— Rate of 
interest charged for secured, 
1-day loans of immediately 
available funds. 



84 



sources 



Section I 
PEOPLE 

SELECTED CURRENT VITAL 

STATISTICS 

U.S. Department of Health, 

Education, and Welfare, 

National Center for Health 

Statistics, Monthly Vital 

Statistics Reports 

Contact: 

Sandra Surber Smith 

301^43-1200 

POPULATION: COMPONENTS 
OF CHANGE 

U.S. Department of Commerce, 
Bureau of the Census, 
Current Population Reports, 
"Estimates of the Population 
of the United States and 
Components of Change: 
1930 to 1975 
Series P-25, No. 632 
Contact: 
Jennifer Peck 301-763-5184 

SCHOOL ENROLLMENT 
U.S. Department of Commerce, 
Bureau of the Census 
Current Population Reports, 
"School Enrollment: Social 
and Economic Characteristics 
of Students, October 1975" 
(advance report) Series 
P-20, No. 294 
Contact: 
Larry Suter 301-763-5050 

EDUCATION ATTAINMENT 
U.S. Department of Commerce, 
Bureau of the Census, 
Current Population Reports, 
"Educational Attainment in the 
United States: March 1975," 
Series P-20, No. 295 
Contact: Larry Suter 301-763-5050 

LANGUAGE USAGE 

U.S. Department of Commerce, 

Bureau of the Census, 

Curren t Popula tion Reports, 

"Language Usage in the 

United States: July 1975," 

Series P-23, No. 60 

Contact: 

Elmore J. Seraile 

301-763-7571 



PERSONAL INCOME 

U.S. Department of Commerce 
Bureau of Economic Analysis 
Survey of Current Business 
Contact: 

Pauline M Cypert 
202-523-0832 

AVERAGE WORKWEEK 
AND REAL EARNINGS 

U.S. Department of Labor 

Bureau of Labor Statistics, 

Employmen t and 

Earnings Statistics for the 

United States 

Contact: 

Average Workweek: 

John Bregger 202-523-1944 

Real Earnings: 

Kathryn D. Hoyle 

202-523-1913 

EMPLOYMENT AND 
UNEMPLOYMENT 

U.S. Department of Labor, 

Bureau of Labor Statistics, 

The Employment Situation 

Contact: 

John Bregger 202-523-1944 

PUBLIC EMPLOYMENT 

U.S. Department of Commerce, 

Bureau of the Census, 

Public Employment in 1975, 

GE 75, No. 1 

Contact: 

Alan V. Stevens 301-763-5086 



Special Feature 

HEALTH 

Contact: 

Sandra Surber Smith 

301-443-1200 

HEALTH EXPENDITURES 

U. S. Department of Health, 
Education, and Welfare, 
Social Security Administration, 
Social Security Bulletin, 
Vol. 39, No. 2, February 1976 



MEDICAL CARE PRICES 

U.S. Department of Labor, 
Bureau of Labor Statistics, 
Consumer Price Index: U.S. 
City Average and Selected 
Areas; and CPI Detailed Report, 
March 1976; and U.S. 
Department of Health, 
Education, and Welfare, 
Social Security Administration, 
Office of Research and Statis- 
tics, Monthly Statistical Report. 

HOSPITAL BEDS 

U.S. Department of Health, 
Education, and Welfare, 
National Center for Health 
Statistics (forthcoming 
publication) 

HOSPITAL DISCHARGES, 
PHYSICIAN AND DENTIST 
VISITS, HEALTH STATUS 

U.S. Department of Health, 
Education, and Welfare, 
National Center for Health 
Statistics, unpublished data 
from Health Interview 
Survey 

NURSING HOMES 

U.S. Department of Health, 
Education, and Welfare, 
Social Security Administration, 
Social Security Bulletin, 
February 1976, Vol. 39, No. 2. 
Other Selected Data: U.S. 
Department of Health, 
Education, and Welfare, 
National Center for Health 
Statistics, Health, U.S. 1975 

DEATH RATES, 
INFANT MORTALITY, 
LIFE EXPECTANCY 

U.S. Department of Health, 
Education, and Welfare, 
National Center for Health 
Statistics, Vital Statistics 
of the U.S., annual volumes; 
and Monthly Vital Statistics 
Reports, annual summaries 



Section II 

COMMUNITY 

HOUSING QUALITY 
NEIGHBORHOOD QUALITY 

U.S. Department of Commerce, 
Bureau of the Census, 
Indicators of Housing and 
Neighborhood Quality for 
the United States and 
Regions: 1973, H-1 50-74 B 
Contact: 
Elmo Beach 301-763-2881 

CRIME INDEX TRENDS 

U.S. Department of Justice, 
Federal Bureau of Investi- 
gation, Uniform Crime Report, 
January-March 1976 
Contact: 
Paul Zolbe 202-324-2614 

INMATES OF STATE 
CORRECTIONAL FACILITIES 

U.S. Department of Justice, 
Law Enforcement Assistance 
Administration, National 
Criminal Justice Information 
and Statistics Service, 
Survey of Inmates of State 
Correctional Facilities: 
1974, SD-NPS-SR-2 
(advance report) 
Contact: 

Robert P. Parkinson 
301-763-1776 

TRANSPORTATION TRENDS 

U.S. Department of Trans- 
portation, Office of the 
Secretary, Transportation 
Safety Information Report, 
4th Quarter 1975 Highlights and 
and 1975 Summary; Federal 
Highway Administration, 
Highway Statistics, annual, 
and "Monthly Motor Gasoline 
Reported by States" 
Contact: 

Doris Groff Velona 
202^126-4138 

PUBLIC SCHOOL SYSTEMS 

U.S. Department of Health, 
Education, and Welfare, 
National Center for Education 
Statistics, Education 



85 



Directory, 1975-76; Digest 
of Education Statistics: 
1975 Edition; Fall Statistics 
of Public Elementary and 
Secondary Day Schools 
Contact: 

Dr. W. Vance Grant 
202-245-8511 



Section III 

ECONOMY 

GROSS NATIONAL PRODUCT 

U.S. Department of Commerce, 

Bureau of Economic Analysis, 

Survey of Current Business 

Contact: 

Leo Bernstein 202-523-0824 

INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION 

Board of Governors of the 

Federal Reserve System, 

Federal Reserve Bulletin 

and Statistical Release, 

G-1 2.3 Industrial Production 

Contact: 

Joan Hosley 202-452-2476 

MANUFACTURING AND TRADE 
SALES AND INVENTORIES 

U.S. Department of Commerce, 

Bureau of Economic Analysis, 

Survey of Current 

Business 

Contact: 

Teresa L. Weadock 301-523-0782 

ADVANCE REPORT ON MANUFAC- 
TURERS' DURABLE GOODS 

U.S. Department of Commerce, 
Bureau of the Census, 
Current Industrial Reports 
"Manufacturers' Shipments, 
Inventories, and Orders," 
Series M3-1 
Contact: 
William Menth 
301-763-2502 

ADVANCE RETAIL SALES 

U.S. Department of Commerce, 

Bureau of the Census, Advance 

Monthly Retail Trade Report 

Contact: 

Irving True 301-763-7660 



HOUSING STARTS AND PERMITS 

U.S. Department of Commerce, 

Bureau of the Census, 

Housing Starts, Series C-20 

Contact: 

William K. Mittendorf 

301-763-7314 

NEW HOME SALES 

U.S. Department of Commerce, 

Bureau of the Census, 

New One-Family Houses 

Sold and For Sale, Series C-25 

Contact: 

Juliana Van Berkum 

301-763-7314 

VALUE OF NEW CONSTRUCTION 

U.S. Department of Commerce, 

Bureau of the Census, 

Value of New Construction 

Put in Place, Series C-30 

Contact: 

Allan Meyer 301-763-5717 

EXPORTS AND IMPORTS 

U.S. Department of Commerce, 

Bureau of the Census, 

Highlights of Exports and 

Imports, FT-990 

Contact: 

Harold Blyweiss 301-763-7776 

CONSUMER PRICE INDEX, INTER- 
NATIONAL COMPARISONS 

U.S. Department of Commerce, 

Bureau of Economic Analysis, 

Business Conditions Digest 

Contact: 

Betty Tunstall 301-763-7240 

CONSUMER PRICE INDEX 

U.S. Department of Labor, 

Bureau of Labor Statistics, 

The Consumer Price Index 

Contact: 

Ken Dalton 202-523-1 182 

WHOLESALE PRICE INDEX 

U.S. Department of Labor, 

Bureau of Labor Statistics, 

Wholesale Prices and Price 

Indexes 

Contact: 

John Early 202-523-1795 



AGRICULTURAL PRICES 

U.S. Department of Agri- 
culture, Crop Reporting 
Board, Agricultural Prices 
Contact: 
Don Barrowman 202-447-3570 

CAPACITY UTILIZATION 

U.S. Department of Commerce, 

Bureau of Economic Analysis, 

Survey of Current Business 

Contact: 

John Woodward 202-523-0874 

NEW PLANT AND EQUIPMENT 
EXPENDITURES 

U.S. Department of Commerce, 

Bureau of Economic Analysis, 

Survey of Current Business 

Contact: 

John E. Cremeans 

202-523-0681 

CONSUMER INSTALLMENT 
CREDIT 

Board of Governors of the 

Federal Reserve System, 

Statistical Released 9, 

Consumer Credit 

Contact: 

Reba Driver 202-452-2458 

NET PUBLIC AND PRIVATE DEBT 

U.S. Department of Commerce, 

Bureau of Economic Analysis, 

Survey of Current Business 

Contact: 

Jeanette Honsa 202-523-0839 

INTEREST RATES- 
LONG-TERM AND SHORT-TERM 
INTEREST RATES 

U.S. Department of Commerce, 

Bureau of Economic Analysis, 

Business Conditions Digest 

Contact: 

Betty Tunstall 301-763-7240 

EFFECTIVE CONVENTIONAL 
MORTGAGE INTEREST RATES 

Federal Home Loan Bank 
Board, Office of Economic 
Research, Terms on Con- 
ventional Home Mortgages 
Contact: 
Wayne Hazel 202-376-3036 



Section IV 

OTHER TRENDS 

SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING 
PERSONNEL 

National Science Foundation, 

Science Indicators, 1974 

Contact: 

Dr. Robert Wright 

202-282-7706 

U.S. PASSPORTS ISSUED 

U.S. Department of State, 

Passport Office, Summary of 

Passport Statistics, STA-502 

Contact: 

Emit W. Kontak 202-382-3751 

ADULT USE OF TOBACCO 

U.S. Department of Health, 

Education, and Welfare: 

Public Health Service, 

Center for Disease Control; 

and National Institutes of 

Health, Adult Use of Tobacco: 

1975 

Contact: 

Dr. Dorothy Green 

301-427-7993 

PRODUCTION AND IMPORTS: 
STEEL, COAL. CRUDE OIL- 
PRODUCTION OF RAW STEEL 

American Iron and Steel 

Institute, Pig-iron and 

Raw Steel Production 

Contact: 

Janet Ashe 202-452-7251 

IMPORTS OF STEEL MILL 
PRODUCTS 

American Iron and Steel 

I nstitute. Imports of Iron 

and Steel Products 

Contact: 

Janet Ashe 202-452-7251 

PRODUCTION OF COAL 

U.S. Department of the 

Interior, Bureau of Mines, 

Weekly Coal Report 

Contact: 

Mary S. Lanier 202-634-1090 

PRODUCTION AND IMPORTS 
OF CRUDE OIL 

U.S. Department of the 

Interior, Bureau of Mines 

Monthly Petroleum Statement 

Contact: 

James M. Diehl 202-634-1050 



86 



INTRODUCTION -(Continued from page 2) 



issue contains a special fea- 
ture which covers in great- 
er depth a subject of major 
public interest. Also, a 
special map will be 
designated each month to 
identify geographic areas 
of special concern. 

STATUS also provides 
listings of sources for 
the materials presented. 
This enables readers 
needing more detailed 
data to follow up directly 
with the source agencies. 
STATUS contains a final 
section on notes and 
definitions. This section 
briefly describes caveats 
associated with the data, 
and defines the major 
terms or headings used 
in the charts. 



CAUTIONS 

The statistics originating 
from Federal agencies are 
not covered by copyright 
and may be reprinted from 
the pages of STATUS. 
Statistical materials 
originating from non- 
government sources should 
not be reprinted without 
formal permission from the 
copyright owners. 

The statistical materials 
used in STATUS are compiled 
from a number of Federal 
statistical agencies and 
nongovernment sources. 
The Census Bureau is not 
responsible for limitations 
on data provided by other 
Federal agencies or other 
sources. The major caveats 
associated with these 
data are briefly described 
in the Notes and 
Definitions section. 



SUGGESTIONS AND 
COMMENTS 

Suggestions for improving 
the presentation of 
statistical data in 
STATUS are welcomed. 
These suggestions will 
be useful in planning 
future editions. 

Also, comments 
on this edition of 
STATUS are welcomed. 
Suggestions and comments 
may be sent to: 

Director 

Bureau of the Census 

Washington, D.C. 20233 

or 

Chief Statistician 
Office of Management 

and Budget 
Washington, D.C. 20503 



technical 
committee 



Chairman of the 
Technical Committee: 

C. Louis Kincannon 

Statistical Policy Division 
Office of Management and 
Budget 



Ago Ambre 

Current Business Analysis 

Division 
Department of Commerce 

Arthur Berger 

Office of Statistics 
Department of the Interior 

Jack Blacksin 

Statistics Division 
Internal Revenue Service 

John Curtis 

Office of Energy Systems Data 
Federal Energy Administration 

Ira Dye, Director 
Office of Transportation 
Systems Analysis and 

Information 
Department of Transportation 



Mary Golladay, Editor 
Condition of Education Report 
Department of Health, 
Education, and Welfare 

Richard M. Hardesty 

Program Reporting Division 
Office of Planning and 

Management 
Environmental Protection 

Agency 

Douglas Henton 

Office of the Assistant 
Secretary for Planning and 
Evaluation 

Department of Health, 
Education, and Welfare 

Denis Johnston 

Statistical Policy Division 
Office of Management and 
Budget 

Frederick V. Lilly, II 

Program Reporting Division 
Environmental Protection 
Agency 

Myrtle Nelson 

Office of Data Analysis 
Bureau of Labor Statistics 
Department of Labor 

Mitsuo Ono 

National Center for Social 

Statistics 
Department of Health, 

Education, and Welfare 

Davis A. Portner 

Office of Manpower Policy and 
Planning, 
Department of Labor 



Robert W. Raynsford 

Statistical Policy Division 
Office of Management and 
Budget 

James Reisa 

Office of Environmental Health 
Council on Environmental 
Quality 

Robert E. Ryan 

Management Data and 
Evaluation Division 

Department of Housing 
and Urban Develop- 
ment 

Harry A. Scarr 

Office of Justice Policy and 
Planning 
Department of Justice 

Robert Schultz 

Reports and Statistics Service 
Veterans Administration 

Richard G. Seefer 

Division of Planning & Policy 
Analysis 
Department of Labor 

Jerry J. Shipley 

Economic Policy Division 
Office of Management and 
Budget 



Stanley J. Sigel 

Office of Managing Director 
for Research and Economic 
Policy 

Federal Reserve Board 

John Stone 

Federal Reserve Board 

Theodore Torda 

Office of the Chief Economist 
Department of Commerce 

Murray S. Weitzman 

Population Division 
Bureau of the Census 

George Wiggers 

Office of Transportation 

Systems Analysis and 

Information 
Department of Transportation 



U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE 
Bureau of the Census 

Washington, D.C. 20233 

OFFICIAL BUSINESS 

SPECIAL FOURTH-CLASS RATE 
BOOK 



POSTAGE AND FEES PAID 

U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE 

COM-202